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    學壇新論

    培育壯大新動能 實現高質量發展

    盛朝迅  2019年07月05日08:46  來源:經濟日報

    近期,全球主要發達國家為在新一輪科技革命和產業變革中搶占先機,紛紛出臺一系列戰略舉措,把制造業特別是中高端制造業發展作為培育新動能的重點方向,大力推進傳統產業改造和新興產業培育相結合,加大政策扶持力度,強化產業政策的適度干預,積極營造培育龍頭企業的生態環境。我國作為一個制造業大國,對主要發達國家的政策取向應予以高度重視,結合自身實際,積極拓寬加快培育壯大新動能的新路徑,進一步優化政策環境,實現經濟高質量發展。

    產業政策發力,主要發達國家紛紛加大培育新動能扶持力度

    一是明確重點方向,把制造業作為培育新動能的重中之重。近年來,主要發達國家明顯加大了對制造業特別是中高端制造業發展的重視。2019年2月,德國聯邦經濟與能源部正式發布《德國工業戰略2030》,明確提出了未來10年德國工業發展的目標,要求增強并擴大德國制造業在歐洲和全球范圍內的經濟技術實力、競爭力和領先地位。

    此后不久,德國又聯手法國一起發布了《面向二十一世紀歐洲工業政策之法德宣言》(簡稱《法德宣言》),呼吁整個歐盟必須在工業政策領域團結一致,共同制定一份更具雄心的歐洲工業戰略,通過大規模投資創新領域,調整歐洲的監管框架,采取自我保護的有效措施等保持歐洲制造業的領導地位,并提高制造業在歐洲經濟產出中的比例。美國則簽署了一項行政命令,正式啟動“美國人工智能倡議”。該倡議旨在調動更多資金和資源,促進美國的人工智能產業,并籌劃頒布一系列行政命令,提高美國在人工智能、5G、量子計算等關鍵技術領域的競爭力,打造“面向未來的產業”。

    二是立足實際情況,將傳統產業改造與新興產業培育有機結合。主要發達國家非常注重將傳統產業改造與新興產業培育有機結合。根據《德國工業戰略2030》,其提出的鋼鐵、銅和鋁產業、化工產業、機械工程和工廠建設、汽車產業、光學產業、醫療設備產業、綠色技術產業、武器裝備、航空產業和增材制造(3D打印)等10大重點領域中有4項是傳統產業,6項屬于新興產業。這些都是德國已經或仍處于領先地位的關鍵工業領域,也是德國制造走向未來的基石。

    三是加大扶持力度,強化產業政策的適度干預。縱觀德、美、法等主要發達國家近期的做法和戰略調整,不難發現,這些舉措既是發達國家為推進本國技術創新、搶占前沿技術領域發展先機、培育新動能一以貫之的做法,也是新一輪全球競爭壓力下貿易保護主義和產業政策的“回潮”。歐洲通過修改相應的規則,全面實施歐盟外國投資審查措施,并且制定嚴格的國家立法,來保護歐洲的關鍵戰略技術和資產,使歐洲的企業具有全球競爭力。“美國人工智能倡議”則提出直接調配資金、開放資源給人工智能領域企業和研究機構,并通過強化標準制定,加大人員培訓,促進國際合作等方式,推進人工智能產業化發展。

    四是政策聚焦發力,更加重視工業冠軍企業培育和生態環境營造。《德國工業戰略2030》明確提出要培養“國家工業冠軍”,期望在人工智能、自動駕駛等戰略性領域,通過國家支持再造類似空中客車一樣的全球領先企業。《法德宣言》強調通過制定歐洲技術融資戰略,確保金融市場支持工業創新,滿足初創公司和創新技術公司的資本需求。實施“先進研究探路者計劃”,推動歐洲在醫療、能源、氣候、安全和數字技術領域的突破性創新,確保氫、低碳工業流程、智能醫療與網絡安全等顛覆性技術涌現,并成為人工智能技術的世界領導者。“美國人工智能倡議”則更加側重技術標準、數據開放、產業發展共性平臺、人力資源培訓等產業生態環境的營造,塑造更有競爭力的產業發展生態。

    優化政策環境,多措并舉加快培育新動能

    首先,應堅持貫徹落實我國有關產業政策。通過相關政策支持產業發展和新動能培育,是已經被實踐反復證明的行之有效的手段。近期發達國家培育新動能的一系列戰略和舉措,都是更加重視產業政策的明確宣示,我國不應該、也不能夠完全廢除產業政策。值得注意的是,需要調整以往傾斜性選擇性的支持方式,改為更加普惠性功能性的支持方式,對大中小企業、國有民營外資企業一視同仁。加大新興產業發展基礎設施建設、政府數據資源開放、標準制定、教育和人才培養、國際合作等方面的投資力度,通過完善基礎環境,強化平臺保障,提升產業發展能力。探索“揭榜掛帥”等項目組織新模式,更多采取后補助或獎補等方式發放,促進產業政策從“選馬”到“賽馬”的轉變。

    其次,更加重視龍頭企業的培育。美國、德國、法國都把龍頭企業培育作為衡量新動能培育成效的重要指標。目前我國在培育新動能領軍企業方面缺乏系統的支持政策,建議明確實施國家工業冠軍計劃,把領軍企業培育作為政府政策支持的著力點,在人工智能、航空航天、量子技術、生命科技等引領未來發展的關鍵領域培育一批世界級企業、領軍企業。

    再次,搶抓機遇讓新技術新動能噴薄而出。新技術創造新產業、衍生新業態、激活傳統產業并推動新一輪國際產業轉移,是帶動世界經濟新動能成長的革命性力量。面對數字經濟、人工智能、平臺經濟、生物經濟等領域技術日新月異的突破性變化,我國唯一的辦法就是擁抱新技術、創造新產業、催生新動能。因此,建議實施國家重點產業技術提升計劃,明確國家重點支持產業技術方向,創新國家重大技術發展項目組織實施機制和模式,新設立一批國家產業技術創新研究院,明確由龍頭企業牽頭組織,積極探索“企業為主導+科研院所和高校為主力+貫通產業鏈上下游+政府支持+開放合作”的組織模式,推動我國在戰略前沿領域、革新技術領域突破一批關鍵核心技術。

    最后,重視傳統產業改造提升在新動能培育方面的作用。值得關注的是,新產業不會憑空產生,沒有強大的傳統產業作為基石,新動能培育只能是“空中樓閣”“天方夜譚”。為此,我國在新動能培育過程中,應重視傳統產業改造升級,通過新技術提高傳統產業生產率,加快發展新型制造和服務型制造新模式,帶動已有產業提質升級,實現高質量發展。

    (作者單位:中國宏觀經濟研究院產業所)

    (責編:孫爽、程宏毅)


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