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    學壇新論

    傾力構建我國科技創新生態體系

    綦魯明  2019年07月05日08:45  來源:經濟日報

    當前,盡管我國科技創新體系已逐步完善。然而,我國科技創新體系面臨較為嚴重的內部問題以及科技創新體系建設和發展滯后等問題。對此,應予以高度重視,從體制機制優化入手,以“新型舉國體制+市場競爭”構建我國科技創新生態體系。

    目前,新一輪科技革命和產業變革正在興起,推動全球產業鏈發生深刻調整。新形勢下,應著力構建科技創新生態體系,推動我國積極融入全球分工體系和產業鏈、創新鏈、價值鏈,穩固和提升我國產業鏈在全球的中心位置。

    我國科技創新生態體系面臨的不足

    一是基礎研究重視不足。我國基礎研究水平與發達國家差距較大。突出表現在,我國從事基礎研究的工作人員不少是從美歐等發達國家留學歸來,所從事的研究大多傾向于跟隨模仿,缺乏重大原創性科學理論和科學思想。同時,也缺乏符合科學精神的創新生態,長期從事基礎理論研究的人才隊伍不夠穩定,在基礎研究領域的投入以政府資金為主,占比達90%。世界500強企業大多都設有基礎研究部門,但目前我國企業投入基礎研究較少。比如,我國95%的芯片仍依賴進口,尚處于全球產業鏈中低端位置。

    二是成果轉化效果不夠顯著。2008年以來,雖然我國越來越多的企業更加重視研發投入,但調研發現,有不少科研人員疏于基礎研究,偏重于在市場做成果轉化,賺取經濟利益。也有企業反映,我國現有的成果轉化較為混亂,研發力量不夠集中,甚至出現政府和社會投入資金較多卻未取得良好效果的現象。

    三是社會創新環境仍未形成。我國支持基礎研究的環境與氛圍需要進一步優化,在開放共享、人才流動、人才穩定、人才激勵等方面存在進一步提升空間。

    科技創新生態體系建設與發展的關鍵是體制機制

    一是缺乏內部分工與協調。雖然我國已初步建立科技創新生態體系,但其發展面臨自身不充分不協調的突出問題。基礎研究是我國科技創新生態體系的最大短板,制約了科技創新生態體系的整體發展。科技成果轉化階段仍處在市場化改革起步階段,社會創新環境對基礎研究和成果轉化不能提供有效支持。科技創新體系自身分工不夠合理,相互脫節,導致科技投入與產出流程不順暢,甚至出現“打亂仗”的現象。

    二是在科研管理過程中,行政化管理情況較為明顯,放管服改革后的創新生態體系尚未建成。目前,科研人員仍會遇到財務、人事管理等方面的束縛。比如,現行的財務制度使科研人員花費大量的時間精力去處理財務報銷等事宜,國際人才交流受限的情況也較多。上述情況,對于發揮科研人員的自主性以及積極性造成了一定影響。

    三是科技評價不能適應形勢發展需要,兩者契合度差距越來越大。盡管我國正在大力推進科技評價改革,建立適應創新驅動發展要求的科技評價體系,然而目前我國的科技評價現狀特別是職稱職務晉升“唯論文”傾向仍然嚴重;在自然科學的成果評價中,存在唯“最具話語權”是瞻的傾向,不僅不符合科學發展需要的證偽精神,也給年輕人在職業發展過程中造成了一定阻礙。

    以“新型舉國體制+市場競爭”構建我國科技創新生態體系

    一是構建各就其位的科技創新體系。構建“國家隊+地方隊+企業隊”的全鏈條創新網絡。應由國家主導基礎研究,建設一批一流的科研院所、大學和公共技術服務平臺,加大長期持續投入,集中力量在基礎應用研究及關鍵核心技術上取得實質性突破。各級地方政府在支持科技創新方面,除了要做好金融支持、人才支持等工作外,更要學習先進經驗,避免政府不當干預。高科技企業可以學習華為等先進經驗,構建“市場+技術創新+富有正向激勵的分配”的現代管理制度,激發創新活力。加強風險投資發展,推進成果有效轉化。最終,在全國逐步形成對科技發展持續關注的良好局面。

    二是弘揚科學精神,打造一流科研人才隊伍。科技創新關鍵是人才。首先,要加大國內人才的培養。我國技術與國外有較大差距,在培養人才上有難度,尤其要注重引進國際人才,加大“本土人才”培育力度,加強基礎教育,培養創新意識,著力打造一批一流高校、培育一流人才;在我國已處于世界領先的技術領域加強傳幫帶力度,形成試錯機制鼓勵科研人才創新,在實踐中培育本土人才。其次,大力發揚解放思想、實事求是、崇尚理性、勇于探索、追求真理的科學精神,應選對人、選準問題開展研究,并為人才提供持續穩定的環境,使其能夠長期潛心研究,避免浮躁。此外,學術研究要做到平等交流,注意解決學術圈固化等問題。

    三是創新科研管理制度,釋放研發活力。打破傳統僵化的科研管理制度,試行職務發明實行科技成果混合所有制的辦法,探索實施科技創新“包干制”改革,改革滯后的科研院所人事、財務制度,科技企業實施員工持股,落實知識產權保護,釋放活力。推動行政性的放管服變成法治化的放管服,構建支撐放管服的誠信體系,做到“靠譜者”給錢,“不靠譜者”不給錢。應建立嚴格的問責制,加強對有權分配科研資源相關工作人員的監督管理。

    四是建立符合科技創新規律、突出質量貢獻績效導向的科技評價體系。以創新質量、產業貢獻、社會效益為導向,根據不同學科、研究領域以及創新鏈不同環節科技人員的崗位特點,分別設置合理的評價指標,構建科技創新分類評價體系。積極探索制定有利于專注研發、潛心研究的科研人員發展的評價辦法,有利于成果轉化的評價辦法。

    五是運用產業鏈思維,加強與發達國家科技生態體系的“咬合”。全球產業鏈正在深度調整,必將形成新的融合,由此,我國應在產業鏈變化的基礎上,加強構建跨境創新網絡,尤其是通過加大國際一流創新人才的引進和使用,使我國與西方發達國家的科技生態體系加強“咬合”,實現成功構建我國科技創新生態體系的美好愿景。

    (作者單位:中國國際經濟交流中心)

    (責編:孫爽、程宏毅)


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