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    回應信息時代的新問題

    在技術進步中更好保護勞動者權利

    林  嘉  2019年07月05日08:10  來源:人民網-人民日報

    信息革命帶來生產力又一次飛躍,數字經濟、共享經濟等新的產業形態和商業模式不斷涌現。信息技術在推動生產力快速發展的同時,也引發人們對個人權益保護的擔憂。在勞動法領域,人們擔憂最多的是大數據、人工智能的廣泛應用,是否會對勞動權、勞動就業、勞動者隱私權等造成侵害。如何實現信息技術發展與勞動者權利保護的共贏,需要在法律層面進行思考和回應。

    最常被人們關注的問題是,機器人會取代人嗎?人工智能可以極大補充人的智能,并具有學習能力。現在,機器人已經開始大量應用于傳統勞動密集型產業、專業技術領域以及企業和政府管理之中。人們看到,除了傳統體力勞動崗位,銀行柜員、金融分析師、會計師、翻譯等智力勞動崗位也受到影響。如果這些工作崗位被大量替代,會不會導致大量勞動人員失業?人工智能不是人的智能,但可能像人一樣學會思維,并在許多方面超過人的智能。當機器人獲得人類的思維能力并實際參與勞動過程時,它是否也會成為勞動法律關系的一方?人工智能也給勞動倫理帶來新挑戰。

    大數據技術讓信息收集變得簡單快捷,勞動者個人信息更容易被收集,這是否會造成對勞動者隱私權的侵犯值得關注。近年來互聯網平臺大量出現,依附于平臺就業的勞動者規模迅猛增長,網約車司機、外賣小哥、閃送員等隨處可見。這種新型就業模式提供了新的勞動機會,緩解了就業壓力。但勞動者與平臺之間能否被認定為勞動關系,他們的勞動權、社會保障權如何實現?新平臺就業人員的勞動權利保護也需要得到法律的關注。

    信息時代產生的這些問題需要勞動法作出回應和調整。如果人工智能替代人的勞動這一趨勢無法改變,我們應更多關注被機器替代的勞動者的權益保護問題。一方面,企業應嚴格遵守解雇的法律程序,給勞動者支付必要的補償金,對于不能解雇的員工應進行適當的工作安排。另一方面,企業和政府應加強對勞動者的職業培訓,促進職業轉換,使勞動者順利實現再就業。關于人工智能能不能成為勞動法律關系主體這一問題,不少學者認為機器人雖具有相當智性,但不具備人之心性和靈性,與具有人類智慧的自然人和自然人集合體是不能簡單等同的。

    勞動者的隱私權、個人信息權是人格權的重要內容,理應受到法律保護。用人單位即使為了管理便利,也應給予勞動者一定的隱私空間。用人單位收集勞動者信息必須基于正當理由,對信息負有保密義務。應實行知情同意原則,對敏感信息收集、使用進行嚴格限制。

    相對于傳統勞動關系,網絡平臺用工形式出現不少新特點。傳統勞動關系的認定主要基于從屬性判斷,即判斷勞動者與用人單位是否具有人格從屬、經濟從屬和組織從屬關系。但是在網絡平臺上,勞動者與平臺之間的從屬關系變得虛化,因而難以用傳統從屬性標準對其作出明確判斷。對于這些新變化,可以不拘泥于傳統勞動關系認定標準,制定專門規范網絡平臺用工的法律法規。比如,規定最高工作時間限制、最低小時工資保障、必要安全保護措施,建立適合網絡平臺勞動者的集體組織、社會保險等制度,既促進新經濟、新業態發展,也最大限度降低侵權風險,更好保護勞動者權益。

    (作者為中國人民大學法學院教授、勞動和社會保障法研究所所長)

    《 人民日報 》( 2019年07月05日 09 版)

    (責編:孫爽、程宏毅)


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