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    炎黃文化育人的邏輯理路

    李明  2019年07月03日08:49  來源:光明日報

      文化是民族的血脈,人民的精神家園。中華民族有著五千多年的文明歷史,創造了燦爛的中華文明。炎帝、黃帝是中華民族的人文始祖,炎黃文化是中華傳統文化的根祖文化、龍頭文化,積淀著中華民族最深層的基因,代表著中華民族特有的精神標識,為凝聚海內外炎黃子孫、維系國家團結統一、促進民族偉大復興提供了源源不斷的精神動力。

      炎黃文化的時代價值

      古人云:“觀乎人文,以化成天下。”炎黃文化作為一種力量,既是歷史的又是當代的,既是民族的又是世界的,既是有形的又是無形的,它之所以具有生命力,除了本身精神特質外,還具有以下獨特的時代價值。

      堅定文化自信。文化是一個國家、一個民族的靈魂。沒有高度的文化自信,沒有文化的繁榮興盛,就沒有中華民族的偉大復興。文化自知是文化自信的基礎和前提,關注研究炎黃文化,把炎黃與中華民族的關系、炎黃精神與中華精神的關系、炎黃文化與中華文化的關系講清說透,能夠從本源和根脈上尋找力量,以文化自知、自重、自覺促進文化自信。

      涵養主流價值。文化是價值的載體,價值是文化的內核。從根本上說,任何一種文化產品,都內隱著一種獨特的價值觀,這種價值觀能在不知不覺中啟人心智、涵育德行。堅持以文化人、以文育人,汲取炎黃文化的思想精華和道德精髓,將其納入社會主義核心價值觀建設全過程,有利于促進炎黃文化從文化形態向價值形態轉化,形成價值觀認同的“最大公約數”。

      培固民族精神。自古以來,以炎黃文化為龍頭的中華優秀傳統文化,始終是中華民族不可摧折、難以磨滅的精神維系。炎黃二帝在其締造中華民族、創建中華文化和中華文明過程中,逐漸形成一種獨特的精神基因——炎黃精神。深入挖掘炎黃文化中蘊含的精神財富,進行合乎時代精神的闡發運用,有助于更好地構筑中國精神、中國價值、中國力量。

      炎黃文化的研究邏輯

      文化的力量是貫穿人類社會歷史演進的經絡,是一個國家和民族的進步之魂。習近平總書記指出:“中國的今天是從中國的昨天和前天發展而來的。要治理好今天的中國,需要對我國歷史和傳統文化有深入了解,也需要對我國古代治國理政的探索和智慧進行積極總結。”炎黃文化歷經世代傳承積淀,又在不斷推陳創新中賡續綿延。這些年,炎黃文化的研究力作頻出,傳承發展炎黃文化取得了很大進展。與此同時,也出現了碎片化、原始化、孤立化研究等問題。解決這些問題,需要正確定位炎黃文化研究的思路與方向,在以下方面破題答卷。

      系統化研究。從新的視角考察分析,可將炎黃文化研究升級為“炎黃學”,系統研究和闡釋炎黃文化的價值觀念、思想主張、文化命題等,用“學”梳理出學界關于炎黃文化的基本脈絡,促進炎黃文化“再生性發展”,用“學”打造炎黃核心學術生產力,凝聚幾代學人的研究共識。

      時代化演繹。緊跟時代步伐,貼近時代需求,全面歷史辯證、客觀科學禮敬地對待炎黃文化,結合新的時代和實踐要求進行揚棄繼承、轉化創新,在原生性基礎上推動炎黃文化創造性轉化、創新性發展,更好融入當下、服務今人。

      大眾化傳播。創新話語表達,深刻解讀炎黃文化的久遠歷史、豐富內涵、鮮明特色、進步思想,對炎黃文化進行精煉化“提純”、通俗化“變臉”、形象化“加工”,深入淺出揭開抽象、深奧的面紗,還原其具體真實的本相,讓更多的人理解和認知炎黃文化,傳播和發展炎黃文化。

      炎黃文化的育人理路

      炎黃文化研究需要著眼于人、落腳于人,服務于立德樹人根本任務。黨的十九大報告提出“培養擔當民族復興大任的時代新人”。習近平總書記強調:“育新人,就是要堅持立德樹人、以文化人,建設社會主義精神文明、培育和踐行社會主義核心價值觀,提高人民思想覺悟、道德水準、文明素養,培養能夠擔當民族復興大任的時代新人。”探究炎黃文化育人理路,要在教育尤其是高等教育中落實好以文化人、以文育人的要求,努力培養德智體美勞全面發展的社會主義建設者和接班人。

      學科育人。學科與育人從來就是相依并存的。《禮記》云:“師也者,教之以事而喻諸德也。”學科化是一種“結構性支撐”,是一個由教材、課程、教學、科研、人才梯隊等諸多環節組成的多維價值統一體。建設炎黃學學科,要把炎黃學由“學問之學”轉變為“學科之學”,由“知識邏輯”轉變為“價值邏輯”,將人們心中的炎黃情結和以炎黃為內核的民俗文化、民族心理、價值觀念等,建立在科學系統的學理基礎上,通過系統化學科建構,引導青年學生樹立正確的世界觀、人生觀、價值觀。

      教學育人。教學是一種德性實踐,其本體功能在于育人。蘇格拉底認為,“德性即知識”。發揮炎黃文化育人效應,就要落實黨中央“推動高校開設中華優秀傳統文化必修課”和“開設中華文化公開課”的要求,樹立教學本位意識,推進炎黃學進課堂,發揮課堂教學主渠道作用,將學術成果及時有效轉化成教學內容,集中式、系統化、持續性地傳播炎黃文化,講清楚炎黃文化的歷史淵源、發展脈絡、基本走向,講清楚炎黃文化的獨特創造、價值理念、鮮明特色,讓炎黃學文化不斷走近青年學生,為培養時代新人提供源源不斷的精神給養。

      教材育人。教材是規范教育、育人育才最主要的遵循,建設什么樣的教材體系,核心教材傳授什么內容、倡導什么價值,體現國家意志,是國家事權。彰顯炎黃文化育人價值,就要以習近平總書記關于中華傳統文化的“四個講清楚”為基本原則,全面梳理炎黃文化的基本脈絡和實質內涵,把研究成果轉化為教材形式,正確處理教材編寫過程中權威性、統一性、創造性之間的內在關系,不斷增強教材編寫、推廣和使用的協同作用,在教材建設中彰顯炎黃文化獨特的文化傳統、價值體系、民族色彩和歷史進程。同時,規范教材語言表述,努力做到通俗易懂,讓學生從中了解文化變遷、觸摸文化脈絡、感受文化魅力、汲取文化精髓,為以文化人、化成天下提供豐厚滋養。

      學術育人。勤教善研,寓教于研。梅貽琦曾指出:“辦學校,特別是辦大學,應有兩種目的:一是研究學術,二是造就人才。”大學育人的特質是學術育人。學術育人,需要有計劃、有組織地開展炎黃學研究,通過考察各種文獻,對各類經、史、子、集等古籍進行系統梳理,對炎黃文化源流進行發掘整合,對“頌古、信古、疑古、釋古”的學術思潮及其研究成果進行提煉歸納,把基本問題搞清楚,把常識問題講明白,使炎黃文化返本開新。要重視典籍文本的開放性和解釋者的創造性,以人類學、民族學、文化學視角,深度研究闡釋神話、傳說、民間故事、文化遺存及考古材料、出土材料的獨特價值,把炎黃文化中跨越時空、超越國度、富有永恒魅力、具有當代價值的文化精神和思想理念弘揚起來,夯實炎黃文化育人的學術基礎。

      管理育人。文化育人不是文化的單向傳遞,而是管理的多維表達。習近平總書記指出:“要注重文化浸潤、感染、熏陶,既要重視顯性教育,也要重視潛移默化的隱形教育,實現入芝蘭之室久而自芳的效果。”堅持以文化人、以文育人,就要運用融入式、嵌入式、滲入式的方法手段,將炎黃文化融入教育教學、社會實踐、校園文化、管理服務和制度建設等全過程,形成濃厚的學術氛圍、豐富的文化生活、和諧的人際關系、文明的生活方式、良好的校園環境、共同的價值取向,為學校事業發展注入強勁動力。要加強精神文明建設,培育大學文化精神,搭建文化活動平臺,創設文化實踐渠道,建設高雅文化環境,用文化滋養心靈、涵養德行、引領風尚。

       (作者:李明,系國家社科基金重大項目“炎黃學概論”課題組成員、信陽師范學院研究員)

    (責編:孫爽、程宏毅)


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