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    信息技術支持下的“寓教于樂”

    李桂霞  2019年07月03日08:49  來源:光明日報

      【研究心得】

      信息技術利用計算機科學和通信技術手段,改變了人們的認知、行為和情感,引發了教育理論和實踐的深刻變革:從以教育為主導到以學習為主導,從以教師為中心到以學生為中心,從面對面教育到遠距離教育,從單獨學科知識到整合性知識,從對知識的掌握到反思性學習,從嚴謹的說教到愉悅的求知。其中,利用信息技術實現“寓教于樂”,將成為教育發展的趨勢之一。

      “寓教于樂”的基本含義是“樂學”,是一種使教育活動成為充滿精神享受的過程。信息技術支持下的教育,利用超時空泛在化的網絡手段,對綜合了多種知覺、認知體驗的多媒體工具加以運用,為學習者提供泛在學習環境,以及在此環境中涉及智力、感官、情感的學習體驗,使學習者在快樂探索過程中不斷追求自我成長與自我實現,以“寓教于樂”的方式增強教育活力,實現教育的人本主義回歸。

      情境創設:信息技術支持下的建構式學習

      建構主義學習理論認為,學習是意義的主動建構過程,學習者在一定情境中通過意義建構方式獲得知識技能、習得經驗。傳統教育模式以教師為中心向學習者傳授知識,學習者在被動接受過程中通過機械孤立的記憶掌握知識,忽視了學習過程中自我意義的建構。信息技術支持創設多樣化的學習情境,教育主體從以教師為中心轉變到以學習者為中心,教學過程由“課堂講授——學生聽課、筆記、復習——考試、檢查”轉變為“創設學習情境——學生主動探索——協商討論——意義建構”。在此過程中,學習不再表現為單一的行為,而是多元變化的情境創設過程,每個學習者都是教育活動的主體,自發主動地參與教學活動,構建豐富多元的學習情境,探索未知的學習領域,喚起好奇心和樂趣,激發靈感和想象力。信息技術支持下以學習者為中心的意義建構,使學習者不斷發展自身的適應力和接受能力,提高組織力,潛在地獲取創造力。

      時空泛在:信息技術支持下的個性化學習

      個性化學習關注每個學習者的不同特點和個性差異,發展個體的優勢潛能。傳統教育的教學方式不可能適應每個學習者的智力水平、理解能力與知識基礎,只有發揮教育的主體性功能,充分滿足個體需求,使教育的個性化得以真正實現,學習的興趣才可能發生,有效學習才能自然地實現。信息技術支持下的大規模在線教育,以不同的內容、形式、風格與途徑為學習者提供個性化時空,學習者可以依據自身的需求、興趣與天賦,按照自己的意愿和安排,明確學習目標、選擇學習內容、確定學習方法、把握學習進度,通過自覺地建構自我認知體系并積極內化,獲得知識技能。此時,信息技術支持下的教育被終身學習、靈活性、自覺意識的理念所塑造,學習不再僅僅與掌握知識相關,更重要的是在變化的社會中使人們產生學習興趣,享受學習過程,知道如何學習并有強烈的自我認同感。

      經驗感知:信息技術支持下的體驗性學習

      一般來說,人類有許多不同層次的認知,最深刻的認知通常發生在個體對某事有恰當的體驗時,這種認知以一種可感知的、生動的、隱性的形式在個體內心編碼,成為個體完整精神結構的一部分,在適當的時候轉化為知識、技能、價值、情感,使個體精神逐步趨于完善。信息技術支持下的學習,通常包含著不尋常的經驗,它會為學習者帶來豐富的、沉浸式的、難忘的個人體驗,在這種體驗中,認知和情感不可分割地聯系在一起,思想和身體共同運行,學習成為積極參與體驗的過程。目前,各種數字藝術體驗展、數字3D影視展、VR虛擬現實體驗等項目日益增多,它們為學習者提供技術與藝術融合的場景,使書本上枯燥的文字變成虛擬的景象,帶給學習者感官上的沖擊。學習者在體驗過程中獲得對事物的認知,用一種直接與感性的方法,理解所經歷的以及相關的知識,將樂趣變成學習的組成部分,豐富自身閱歷,提高學習效率,實現學習與生活、體驗與成長的統一。

      情感互動:信息技術支持下的協作式學習

      協作式學習是在同伴間或一定群體范圍內開展的學習活動,也被稱為團隊學習。協作學習有利于促進學生認知能力的發展,有利于學習者健康情感的形成。傳統教學模式下學習者少有機會與同行進行跨時空的交流,而在信息技術支持下,學習者可以通過網絡連接,突破時空的界限,進入全球交互式的學習環境,這種數字化、合作式的學習方式,支持所有學習者通過競爭、協同、角色扮演等方式構建學習共同體,通過共享的方式,在交互的學習中習得易遷移、情境性的內容。在信息技術支持下的協作學習中,每個人都是學習的參與者,都是他人的協助者,學習者相互幫助,共同進步,提高社會交往能力。這種方式可以滿足學習者互動需求,引導學習者更好地處理人際關系,獲取來自社會的情感支持,在交互的環境中體會社會多元化,激發學習興趣,攜手適應未來。

      思維開放:信息技術支持下的非線性學習

      線性學習是指學習者沿著事先設計好的教育軌道進行學習,傳統教學模式通常是以線性學習方式進行的。信息技術支持下的學習以超文本超媒體的方式突破了線性學習模式局限,學習者依靠信息技術,檢索可借鑒的學習資源,這些資源是相關的信息節點,節點之間形成文本的立體網絡,表現為文本、圖像、聲音、動畫、視頻,也可以是其中幾項的組合體。學習者可以通過超鏈接的方式從任意一點進入學習內容,并從一個內容跳躍到另一個內容,根據興趣靈活掌握多方面知識。非線性學習的發散性特點,可以激發學習者的聯想思維,吸引學習者的注意,引發學習者的好奇心,形成積極美好的情緒體驗,為學習者選擇適合自身的學習資源、制定屬于自己的學習方案、形成科學高效的學習開拓思路。

       (作者:李桂霞,系國家社科基金項目“公共數字文化服務的社會教育功能及實現路徑研究”負責人、哈爾濱學院副研究員)

    (責編:孫爽、程宏毅)


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