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    儒家學說中博愛的思想情懷

    向世陵  2019年07月02日11:13  來源:中國社會科學報

    儒家思想學說中的博愛主要依存于仁學的懷抱。中華五千年的文明史,固然有戰爭、瘟疫、剝削和壓迫等苦難,但“和”為一個中華民族本身,也在一定程度上說明它是先民們在相互尊重和互助互惠中創造出來的歷史。作為一種跨越血緣而撫慰人心的崇高情懷,博愛突出的是人與人相愛的美好境界。

    仁者愛人,仁愛是博愛的母體

    仁者愛人,仁愛是博愛的母體,博愛主要體現了仁愛的普遍之愛價值。人需要愛和尊重,這既是人的情感和人格自尊的需要,也是社會交往中應當信守并通行的原則。作為社會性的動物,人是在人與人的互助中得以生存的。從愛、親、孝、慈的個體關愛到愛國愛社會的崇高境界,既是價值內化的表現,也是社會教化的結果。儒家文化支配下的社會教化,使得報答和互惠(愛)的意識在兒童時期就已經孕育。傳統上,人們大都接受前人栽樹后人乘涼的觀念,相信仁愛和美德終究會有好報。“積善之家,必有余慶;積不善之家,必有余殃”。有愛心、愛人、愛物,自己才會被人物所愛,愛的公共性和互惠性品格由此得以彰顯。

    自秦漢開始,“大一統”的中央集權制國家形式運行了兩千多年,從思想的層面維護這一制度,便是漢代國家倡導的以孝治天下。《孝經》適應這一氣候而成為最通行的經典,其中就有關于“博愛”這樣的文字表述。在董仲舒筆下,博愛整合了儒家和墨家的相關思想內容,以緩和當時嚴重的貧富不均導致的社會矛盾。盡管董仲舒的主觀目的是要禁絕包括墨家在內的諸子,但對博愛的提出與墨家宣揚的兼愛卻又是殊途同歸。

    儒家關于博愛的論述發展到漢唐時期,主要側重于經驗和應用的層面,并將其與宇宙觀相結合。而從形而上的層面闡釋和論證博愛的精神與價值,則是宋明理學承擔的任務。但不論是經驗還是理性,貫穿的都是公天下的博愛情懷。“大道之行”的“天下為公”,并不隨著“小康”禮制社會的到來而中斷,它在講求公平和博愛的意義上存在于中國社會,并因之可以跨越血親“小家”而走向萬物一體的“大家”。理學家發掘了傳統儒學的理論資源,從陰陽氣化的和合走到了一氣一性和同心、同理、同善。

    “同善”的思想最早可以追溯到孟子,在宋以后發展為“天人一身”的“大身”觀。“大身”基于自我的擴充,“同善”則體現為人際間的關愛。仁既是個體的美德,也是天道之善的生生流行。以生生論仁善,講仁者生也,是宋明諸儒將孔孟的仁說與《易傳》的“生生之善”貫通起來的結果,并在實踐中為明后期興起的“同善會”的慈善救助提供了可能的路徑。

    進入近代社會,一方面因為中國遭受的屈辱而導致了對自身傳統和歷史的不公正評判,“博愛”成為了西方先進文化的象征,儒家的仁愛因含有差等之愛而變成落后的標志。但另一方面,中國的先進人士卻希望通過改造儒家的仁愛體系,闡揚儒家學說中博愛的重要價值,使傳統仁學體系和西方現代文明銜接起來。

    “親親為大(先)”與“愛人為大”的統一

    人際交往的“親親為大(先)”與治國理政的“愛人為大”作為儒家仁愛的兩大基本內涵,在形式上似乎存在一定的緊張,但從兩千多年歷史發展的實際看,它們是能夠協調并相互適應的。《中庸》的“親親為大”只是反映了愛的實施由近及遠的先后次序,或者喪服、喪期由親及疏的依次遞減。如此的差等之愛并不意味要強化等級,而是在承認社會既有的上下尊卑地位的前提下,倡導將親情之愛推向社會和惠及他人,即差等之愛與博愛在目的上又趨向一致。

    按照儒家理想建立起來的國家制度,博愛的精神已寓于其中。從維護親情、引導行孝到五刑改革、輕徭薄賦和對孤寡老弱的體恤便是如此。唐代政治繼續了漢代的以孝治天下,博愛的觀念直接進入了國家的法典。今天的人們喜言漢唐盛世,固然是就當時的強盛國家而言,但這中間也包含著對儒家博愛觀念所發揮的作用的肯定。在融博愛和差等之愛為一體的仁愛體系的調節作用下,剛性的制度和規范的秩序能夠得以維持,并能夠靈活地適應復雜多變的社會情勢和人際關系,使國家不至于因缺乏黏合劑而最終分裂。

    博愛:多樣文化匯通的觀念節點

    作為中華思想文化重要組成的儒家文化,產生于華夏社會,但并不封閉和保守。秦漢以后的兩千多年里,不僅在漢文化圈中流行,也浸潤到少數民族群體之中。隨著儒家文化的傳播,少數民族在思想觀念、生活習慣和行為方式等方面不同程度地受到影響,潛移默化地吸納了儒家思想文化觀念。儒家學說中的博愛,一定程度上發揮了連接各少數民族的潤滑劑和黏合劑的功能,亦因之促成了中華各民族之間的和睦。

    在近代以來,西方工業文明及其文化進入中華大地,博愛理念一定意義上客觀成為孔、墨、釋、耶各家思想匯通的思想節點。亦如,基督教倡導的人與人之愛是對上帝之愛的回應和仿效,其博愛反映了基督教信仰的效力和獲得上帝救贖的功利性需要。但它與儒家立足內在仁性生發、由孝悌入手而走向“泛愛眾”的道路有明顯的不同。儒家仁愛思想中的博愛觀念不同于基督教“愛鄰人”的觀念,但親親仁民愛物的愛的順序推衍,將與鄰人、他人的和睦相愛包含在情理之中。

    清代初年,李毓秀編寫《弟子規》,雖講述了若干的“規矩”,但《論語》的“泛愛親仁”仍是貫穿的紅線,并表現出明顯的“兼愛”或“博愛”色彩。故其所述對父兄之愛,就不是孟子由近及遠式的“老吾老以及人之老,幼吾幼以及人之幼”;而直接是普遍之愛意義的“事諸父如事父,事諸兄如事兄”;“凡是人,皆須愛,天同覆,地同載”,將孔子的“泛愛”、墨子的“兼愛”和張載的“民胞物與”一脈貫穿。

    總而言之,隨著從樸素情感到理性把握的轉向和升華,儒家學說中的博愛,在今天更加展現出它既獨特又普遍的思想魅力。

    (作者系國家社科基金重點項目“儒家博愛論研究”負責人、中國人民大學教授)

    (責編:孫爽、程宏毅)


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