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    青銅器銘文:開創中華私人寫作的傳統

    丁進  2019年07月02日11:11  來源:中國社會科學報

    商周青銅器銘文與《詩經》誕生于同一時代——中華青銅時代,青銅器銘文中的優秀作品數量不下300篇,這些作品與《詩經》中優美的詩篇一起,構成中華青銅時代文學的雙璧。商周青銅器銘文對于中華文學的最大貢獻是開創了私人寫作傳統。私人寫作的源頭由晚商銘文作家開啟,但真正形成私人化寫作傳統的還是西周作家。經過西周銘文作家近300年的努力,私人化的銘文寫作傳統勢不可當,為春秋戰國時期諸子百家爭鳴作了鋪墊,也為春秋以降的散文創作提供了成熟的寫作經驗。

    文體高度成熟

    青銅器銘文數量巨大,依據所反映的題材可以分為冊命、獎勵、紀功、分封賜采、契約、祈禱勸誡、媵器、世系八大類。冊命銘文是西周青銅器銘文中的“大戶”,核心內容是記敘被任命為世襲職官的榮耀。獎勵銘文記敘作器者受到周王或上級獎賞的榮耀。紀功銘文最多的是記敘戰功。早期紀功銘文篇幅比較短小,中后期長篇紀功銘文涌現出一大批杰出作品。分封賜采銘文記敘作器者被封為諸侯和賜予采邑的榮耀。契約銘文記載作器者與他人簽訂的契約協議。媵器銘文是女方長輩或兄弟輩為即將出嫁的女子制作青銅器嫁妝所撰寫的銘文。世系銘文主要出現在西周中后期,是貴族世家文化積累到一定程度的產物,內容是展示列祖列宗在歷史上的豐功偉績和高尚道德,表達世系綿延不絕的美好愿望。

    按照表現手法劃分,銘文可以分為紀事體和抒情體。冊命銘文、獎勵銘文、紀功銘文、分封賜采銘文多屬于紀事體銘文,而勸誡類銘文大多屬于抒情體銘文。抒情體銘文大多采用“器主曰”形式開頭。勸誡祈禱類銘文是對青銅器銘文傳統的突破,標志著一些青銅器銘文作家已經不滿足于在青銅器上撰寫家族豐功偉績與光宗耀祖之事,而是在探索利用這些特殊載體表達自己的思考、愿望等更加個性化的思想感情。

    除了祈禱勸誡類銘文外,其余類型的銘文結構高度要素化。這些要素包括時間、地點、主持人、佑者、作器者、過程、重點內容、作器者感激、作器目的、作器愿望十大項。在時間要素上,西周青銅器銘文建立了年數、月數、月相、日辰的記敘模式。一個完整的時間要點記敘包括王年數、月數和月相、日辰干支。其中年數、月數用自然數字表示,月相則為既生霸、既死霸、既望、初吉表示,日辰則用六十干支表示。這是獨具中國特色的記時法。在地點要素上,西周青銅器銘文用得最多的是“王在某地”,唐蘭根據這個記地特點,總結出西周青銅器銘文中的“康宮”問題,從而為一大批青銅器斷代提供了依據。而佑者一般是受冊命或受賞賜者的上級官員;王朝冊命和賞賜的主持人一般是周王,冊命者往往是史官;紀功銘文中的人物往往是周王或器主的上級官員。

    除了契約類銘文外,其他類銘文對于過程記敘都比較簡略,但都注重內容記敘。冊命、賞賜類銘文往往對冊命賞賜令進行摘錄,因而保存了大量西周王朝原始檔案文獻。對于作器目的,西周青銅器銘文絕大部分均有記敘。最多的是祭祀祖先神靈,其次是用于自己的日常生活和社會交往。這一部分的記敘看起來枯燥無味,刻板笨拙,實際上包含重要的歷史信息,隱藏著一個家族數百年的歷史。

    后世學者根據這些信息確定銅器年代、器主身份以及與其他青銅器的關系,將一篇篇銘文聯系起來,構成一個個時代的宏偉畫卷。至于作器愿望記敘,看起來也是比較刻板,都是子子孫孫永寶用享,卻也體現了3000年前的先人突破時空的限制表達他們萬世不絕的愿望。許多銘文作家在這一部分追求語言的華美,為西周青銅器銘文典雅特質的形成作出了貢獻。

    記言技巧高超

    西周青銅器銘文的記言已經形成獨具特色的技巧,從言語記錄發展到虛擬記言。手法可以分為獨白記言、訓令記言、對話記言、概述性記言、套轉記言、選擇性記言、描述性記言。獨白記言在青銅器銘文中主要以“器主曰”形式出現,是虛擬的器主與祖先神靈、與不在現場的人物之間的單向對話。訓令記言主要是將周王和君主的政令用“王若曰”“侯若曰”的形式記錄下來。“王若曰”記言是中華文化中的獨特現象,也是西周王朝檔案文獻的典型標志。“王若曰”記言與一般的記言有所不同,“王若曰”之后的“王的話”已經不是純粹的王的語言,而是經過史官記錄改造的語言。王所說是口語,史官記錄在簡冊上就轉化成書面語了。周恭王時期的《五祀衛鼎銘》,出現了真正的對話記言;周懿王時期的《曶鼎銘》中,對話記言比較完備。以上兩例都出自契約類銘文,反映了契約類銘文對于證據完整性的追求。

    由于青銅器載體面積有限,銘文作家一般不采用完整的對話記言形式。銘文有時為了節省篇幅以追求文章簡潔,有意漏掉說話者一部分內容,挑選其中關鍵的語句進行記言。我們將銘文這種記言方法稱為選擇性記言。冊命、賞賜類的大部分西周青銅器銘文對于周王或君長的訓令都不照抄,采用概述法,將其中的主要部分或核心內容記載下來,此為概述性記言。西周青銅器銘文還有一種比較復雜的記言法,就是通過第三者之口,將對方的話記錄下來,形成話中套話,這就是套轉性記言。這種轉述性記言的出現,標志著西周青銅器銘文達到了相當高的記言水平。西周青銅器銘文中有的篇章對說話人的聲音進行了模擬性記敘,我們稱之為描述記言。描述性記言是記言手法成熟的標志,說明西周青銅器銘文已經利用記言在刻畫人物形象。

    記敘手段復雜

    西周青銅器銘文在記敘事件過程方面積累許多經驗,形成了疊加記敘法、聯陳法、鋪敘法等一系列敘事技巧,推動了中華私人化寫作技術的進步。

    由兩個以上的次級敘事組合而成一個完整的記敘,我們稱之為疊加記敘法。例如,《不■簋銘》“伯氏曰”之中包含了六件事情:一是獫狁伐西俞,二是王命伯氏追獫狁,三是伯氏獻擒,四是伯氏命不■追擊獫狁,五是高陵之戰,六是突圍之戰。以上六件事情構成了一個大的事件記敘:西周軍隊抗擊獫狁入侵,取得突出戰果,這就是疊加記敘法。疊加記敘法的出現,標志著西周青銅器銘文的記敘能力大幅度提升。聯陳法就是連續的陳述,主要出現在西周青銅器銘文作器愿望的陳述上。例如《蔡姞簋銘》說:“尹叔用綏多福于皇考德尹、叀姬,用祈匄眉壽、綽綰、永命、彌氒生,靈終,其萬年無疆,子子孫孫永寶用享。”作器者蔡姞的愿望包括綏多福、祈匄眉壽、綽綰、永命、彌氒生、靈終、萬年無疆、永寶用享八大項,這八項都是同一層次上的愿望。也有不在同一層次上的愿望聯陳的,例如《九年乖伯簋銘》說:“歸夆敢對揚天子丕顯魯休,用作朕皇考武乖幾王尊簋,用好宗廟,享夙夕,好朋友,雩百者司遘。用旗屯錄永命,魯壽子孫,歸夆其萬年日用享于宗室。”歸夆的愿望分為兩組,分別以“用”起領。第一組有三項,第二組也有三項,每項之間是并列關系。與聯陳法表達愿望不同,鋪敘法是指銘文對一件事情的記敘猶如一幅卷軸全方位展開。

    西周銘文鋪敘法用得最好的是世系類銘文和契約類銘文。例如著名的《史墻盤銘》從文王開始講起,歷數武王、成王、康王、昭王、穆王和恭王七代周天子的偉業,以及自己的祖先高祖、刺祖、乙祖、祖辛、文考乙公的事跡。《逨盤銘》所鋪敘的世系更長,鋪敘高祖單公、皇高祖公叔、皇高祖新室中、高祖惠中盝父、皇高祖零白、皇亞祖懿中、皇考龏叔七代祖考服務于西周歷代天子的功績。這是以時間先后為序的鋪敘法。還有以四方為序展開空間鋪敘的作品,例如散氏盤銘為后世提供了西周確定田地疆界的具體操作方法,以人物的行走路線為線索,展開空間轉換的鋪敘,有條不紊,面面俱到,令人驚嘆。大克鼎銘在賞賜物品項上展開鋪敘:“賜女叔巿、參絅、中悤;賜女田于埜;賜女田于渒;賜女田于康;賜女田于匽;賜女田于溥原;賜女田于寒山;賜女史小臣、霝、鼓、鐘……”作者有意追求修辭效果,他完全可以將所賞賜物品直接列出來,無需每一條都帶上“賜女”這樣的動賓結構短語以節約文字。但是撰寫者固執地連用十個“賜女”,我們讀起來不但不感到累贅,反而感到為銘文增添了一股氣勢,形成了具有震撼力的閱讀效果。這就是鋪敘的力量。

    (作者系國家社科基金項目“西周銘文史”負責人、安徽財經大學教授)

    (責編:孫爽、程宏毅)


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