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    詞曲統觀視角下明代詞曲互動研究

    胡元翎  2019年07月02日11:10  來源:中國社會科學報

    基于詞曲共同的音樂文學本質、詞曲在后世的共生互動現象,詞曲統觀自然地成為了研究詞曲或曲史的一種重要視角。自南宋開始的詞,從音樂性質的文體發展到與詩同等性質的不可歌的文體后,走上一條狹窄的雅化之路。至明代,詞一方面接續這一創作路數,而另一方面,在大部分失去流行音樂文學功能而漸次案頭化時,那種與生俱來的“曲”基因,令其即使在備受壓抑的狀態中也要頑強地去找尋適合的養分,因此出現大量詞的曲化現象,詞曲互動由此發生。

    《草堂詩余》的典范性指導

    詞曲統觀意識實際從明代追捧南宋《草堂詩余》開始建立。《草堂詩余》分類本在它誕生之日起就承載著詞曲一體的音樂唱本的意義,它與詞的應歌性,或者說與“詞的曲化”有密切的關聯,又恰好在明代傳播興盛。相當一部分明人在相當長的時期內堅持著詞的流行音樂文學屬性這種意識,而同時又要面對詞已失去流行音樂文學功能的尷尬。明詞對《草堂詩余》的接受和模仿屬“別一種曲化”,是從觀念深層向“曲”的傾斜,是向詞的源起——晚唐、北宋詞吸納“曲化”因子的過程。正因為明代有對詞乃流行歌曲性質的認同,令《草堂詩余》得到了一枝獨秀的流行,也正因為《草堂詩余》的典范性指導,遂使詞家,特別是嘉靖及之后的詞家不自覺地受《草堂詩余》的影響,也正因為《草堂詩余》的大熱,遂使“曲化”詞在明中后期沿著流行歌曲之路發展,進而與“時曲”相親近。

    其一是《草堂詩余》影響下詞的創作及活動。從《草堂詩余》對明代詞家評價標準的樹立、詞人創作風范的影響以及以陳鐸為代表的對《草堂詩余》規模模仿作個案探查,了解到這“別一種曲化”在明代的具體表現特征為:“恒平俗”“以便歌”,以宣泄功能、應酬功能、娛樂功能為尚,以詞“頌酒賡色”“于閨幨內奏之”為標準。通過考察陳鐸《草堂余意》對周邦彥詞的和韻詞,可見陳鐸《草堂余意》對《草堂詩余》的亦步亦趨,開始了明代文人宗“草”觀念的形成。陳鐸在創作實踐上為明代文人以“草堂”風格為曲化標準創作樹立了極端的典范,應屬于明前期詞之曲化意識的集中體現之一,從而帶動明代詞人或多或少對《草堂詩余》加以模仿,效宋人詞、和宋人韻之作層出不窮,而且所選詞人詞調大多出自《草堂詩余》。此類曲化詞的創作一直延續到明末清初。

    其二是“詞曲共生”背景下詞向散曲、劇曲及民歌小曲等時曲傾斜的創作及活動。明詞受時曲影響而呈現部分曲化的表現形態為:一方面從音樂功能上部分明詞依然可唱,只不過是“依時曲入歌”;另一方面在文詞風格上向明代文人散曲或民歌小曲傾斜與模仿。通過探查《魏氏樂譜》及明詞序跋、明代詩話、詞話、曲話等文獻資料,尋找到部分明詞可歌的依憑,認識到舊有流行歌曲性質的外在形態仍在明詞中部分留有,進而通過文獻查考,針對明詞是以何樂何譜來表現詞的音樂性這一問題得到答案,即“依時曲而歌”。通過以徐士俊、卓人月《古今詞統》評點為例觀詞論家詞曲融通意識的具體體現,認識到所謂“曲代詞興”“曲興詞亡”的提法實有偏頗,明人并不認同。“詞亡”之真正含義在于“所以歌詠詞者亡也”,然詞又以今世之樂之譜仍發揮著它的音樂功能。且不管明人在詞的創作上有多少不盡如人意之處,但明代確是南宋以來直至清詞這一漫長發展階段中詞曲同源意識最明晰也最接近詞之本體的時代。

    明詞的時曲化可分為兩個階段

    第一階段為明前期:瞿佑存詞較多,且區別于劉基、高啟等政治精英類詞人。他被認為開“明詞曲化之先聲”,然學界對曲化詞的構成元素及淵源尚不清晰。但通過細致梳理瞿佑的創作歷程,特別是對詞集《天機余錦》與《樂府遺音》從版本、成因及詞學表現方面深入探查,可以得出結論:瞿佑所代言明代初期詞的時曲化的指向,多是沿元代詞曲融通的路數。他開啟了后來明人在詞曲創作中進一步的融合之路并增加了更為濃郁的世俗味道。

    第二階段為明中后期:被稱為“我明一絕”的“小曲”,經過明前中期的民間醞釀至嘉靖年間形成風潮席卷全國。這“真的詩”對明散曲加以全面影響從而又轉而影響到詞。至此,明前期元代詞曲的慣性延展,且告一段落。故明代中后期詞的時曲化指向更多的是明代小曲的精神特質及表達方式。通過吳中代表詞人祝允明、唐寅,可以探查明代中后期江南文人詞曲互動的實際狀況。同時亦可通過對明代中后期深受時曲影響下的詞人詞作情況作縱向梳理、選取明擬話本小說中所用詞調這一角度,進一步認識部分詞調的時曲功能在文人創作中的影響。

    明代詞曲創作呈交叉融通之勢

    伴隨著詞體由雅變俗,散曲卻由俗變雅,明代詞曲創作呈交叉融通之勢。相同的時代,施之于不同文體卻呈現出兩種完全不同的發展態勢。我們不禁要感嘆文學生態與文體生態的豐富性和復雜性。然通過梳理南曲興盛后明散曲的雅化傾向以及當時曲論中所反映出的詞曲統觀意識,認識到自南曲興盛后,南散曲向詞體的具體借鑒即雅化,僅止于花間婉麗型與北宋清雅型,并未逸出明詞宗“花草”之范疇,可以說其雅化亦相當克制,屬于適度融入,二者在此找到了共同的融合點。當然,明代散曲的詞化,主要表現在文詞上,已脫離了音樂文學的前提。這種雅化的重尋舊路,反映出文學發展的內在規律,即雅俗之變、樸與華之交替已成為文學發展不斷循環的軌跡。晚明散曲的詞化現象姑且視之為文體自身的一種擺脫痼習的努力。

    開辟詞曲兼擅家這一視角,對明代詞曲家進行個案探討,可以梳理出他們在由曲到詞的文體轉換中,自覺或不自覺間表現出的差異和共通性,從中發掘出詞曲互動發生過程中從作者到作品到接受層面的諸多現象與問題。如楊慎、高濂、施紹莘、王屋等明代詞曲互動中具代表性意義的詞曲家都是特別有意義的透視點。同時驚喜地感知到明代文人(特別是晚明)那活潑潑的生命火花,認識到文體研究不僅僅是從文體到文體,它是由有血有肉的人以及有生命的文字構建起來的。“詞曲互動”所具有的開放性、融通性,恰是明代時代特征與文人精神的絕好體現,它昭示著一種狀態,一種從觀念到行止風貌皆顯放達的人文狀態。

    (作者系國家社科基金項目“明代詞曲互動研究”負責人、黑龍江大學教授)

    (責編:孫爽、程宏毅)


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