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    社科要聞

    “歷代進士登科數據庫”上線——

    二十四年走出一條學術新路

      2019年07月02日14:48  來源:光明日報

    每每走到西溪校區圖書館六層,浙江大學圖書館副館長黃晨都會看一眼古籍研究所教授龔延明的辦公室——不出意外,那扇門總是敞開著的。

    就是在這間辦公室,從1995年到2019年,龔延明帶領祖慧、邱進春、周佳等團隊成員,日復一日,完成了一次24年的探索——經過近乎竭澤而漁的努力,將現存10萬余名進士的傳記資料幾乎一網打盡,編纂出4000萬字的《中國歷代登科總錄》,填補了科舉文獻整理的空白。

    20多年來,龔延明和他的團隊不僅在故紙堆中孜孜以求,還在互聯網上乘風逐浪:紙質本《總錄》全部出版尚需一些時日,以《總錄》為基礎的“歷代進士登科數據庫”日前已經率先在中華書局“籍合網”上線。年近八旬的龔延明說:“我們不但要做追潮人,更要勇敢地站立在潮頭之上。”

    十萬精兵,點滴積累

    “龔延明‘惹不起’,他手下有‘十萬精兵’。”私下里,北京大學教授安平秋和朋友這樣開玩笑。“十萬精兵”,就是指龔延明研究的那10萬多名進士。

    龔延明的主業,本是宋史。他的《宋史職官志補正》《宋代官制辭典》等代表作,至今仍是宋史學者案頭的必備書。1993年,年過半百的龔延明,受命接替姜亮夫先生擔任學校古籍研究所所長。他琢磨著,過去總是自己獨立做研究,以后要和同事、學生共同做一些集體項目,于是,就有了編纂《中國歷代登科總錄》的想法。

    “科舉是中國帝制時代具有代表性的文化符號,歷代進士中有很多彪炳史冊的濟世之才。從隋唐到明清,大部分政治家、文學家、教育家都是進士出身,民族的興衰、朝代的更替、國家的治亂與他們密切相關。”廈門大學教授劉海峰說,科舉是進士群體登進仕途的轉折點,科舉文獻記載著他們的科舉經歷和家世出身等信息,在政治史、教育史、文學史等方面都有重要學術價值,是一個尚待開發利用的文獻寶庫。

    寫下了“春風得意馬蹄疾”的唐人孟郊是進士,近代倡導“兼容并包”的蔡元培也是進士,自隋唐至明清,存在了1300年的科舉,深刻影響了中國歷史與文化。科舉文獻的重要性,學界有共識;整理科舉文獻的難度,卻很少有學者親身體會過。

    10萬多名進士,每人一個小傳,不僅要有姓名、字、號、籍貫、登科年份等基本信息,而且要有他的重要履歷,并附以書證。龔延明還提出了一個嚴苛的要求:撰寫小傳,要“字字有來歷,條條有出處”,書證要盡可能從第一手文獻中抄錄。

    “撰寫小傳,不僅要查找史料,而且要懂官制,熟悉歷史地理,能夠對不同版本的文獻進行辨析、判斷。”龔延明說,此前出版的《宋人傳記資料索引》僅收了22000人,《中國歷代人名大辭典》也只收了54500人,而《總錄》的宋代部分就有41000多人,工作量之大,可想而知。除了團隊的幾位核心成員,龔延明的許多博士生也都參與過《總錄》的文獻資料搜集。

    在浩如煙海的古文獻中,很多進士的名字都已湮沒,更遑論傳記資料。明洪武十八年(1385年)殿試,472名進士榜上有名。他們的名字原本都刻錄在《洪武十八年榜進士題名碑》之上,但明成祖朱棣執政時,此碑被毀。后人根據殘碑及地方志等文獻,陸續找到了422人的名字,可仍不完整,而且錯誤不少。

    “我們做歷代登科總錄,一定要完整、準確,不能將闕就闕,以訛傳訛。”抱著這樣的信念,龔延明與邱進春專門進行研究,最終確認,保存在《皇明進士登科考》一書中的《洪武十八年會試錄》完整收錄了472名進士名單。捧著就此編成的一冊登科錄,他感慨萬千:“光這一榜進士,就這樣厚厚一本,180頁。明代科舉共89榜,就要有這樣的89冊。當初是知其不可而為之,現在回過頭看看,真會冒冷汗!”

    龔延明的“十萬精兵”,不是從天而降,而是這樣一點點積累匯聚起來的。

    勇立潮頭,惠人無算

    因為體量過于龐大,《中國歷代登科總錄》啟動之初,龔延明就決定制作數據庫,雖然那時還是20世紀90年代,雖然連他自己也不大清楚數據庫為何物。

    龔延明1960年從杭州大學歷史系畢業,是接受傳統學術訓練成長起來的學者,以往的著述都是借助一張張手寫的卡片完成的。可是,對于《總錄》,他初步估算了一下,僅宋代的41000多名進士,平均每人4張卡片,就需要16萬多張卡片,無論是抄寫后的歸類,還是編寫時的查檢,都很困難。即使把這些卡片全部轉換成電子文本,如果只是雜亂無章地堆放在一起,同樣不便于查檢。

    “比如,宋代的118榜進士,有文科,有武科,有定期的常科,還有不定期的制科等許多科目,簡單的電子文本根本無法進行區分。這4000萬字的《中國歷代登科總錄》,靠我們這幾條槍,要做到猴年馬月?這逼得我不得不嘗試使用數據庫。”龔延明找到本校計算機專業的老師幫忙,按照他的設想制作了專用軟件,凡輸入一條進士資料,軟件就會自動把此人歸至某朝、某榜、某一科目,凡檢索朝代、榜次、科目、人名,軟件就會顯示篩選后的結果。正是這些今天看起來并不復雜的功能,極大提升了《總錄》的編纂效率。

    設計數據庫需要經費,購買文獻、復制文獻、數據錄入,也需要經費。1995年,在龔延明最無助的時候,《中國歷代登科總錄》課題在全國高校古籍整理研究工作委員會立項,批準科研經費4萬元,此后又連續追加三次經費,每次2萬元。可對這樣一個大項目來說,10萬元的經費顯得捉襟見肘,龔延明有時還得自掏腰包。好在,浙江大學、國家社科基金先后施以援手,《宋代登科總錄》《明代登科總錄》兩個子課題的成果,還獲得了國家出版基金資助。一路艱辛,龔延明挺過來了。

    “很多人以為辦文科很便宜,不用什么投入,一個人、一張紙、一支筆、一方書桌即可。殊不知,文科才是真正的奢侈品,需要的天賦、興趣、恒心和毅力,在今天哪一樣不是奢侈品?”得知“歷代進士登科數據庫”上線的消息,浙江大學副校長羅衛東在微信朋友圈寫下了這樣一段話,“一個文科學者要做出體面的學術作品,需要豐富的圖書資料供給、必需的物理空間和穩定的生活保障,以及相應的學術服務人員,沒有不菲的資金投入,這些條件又怎么可能具備?……當然,投資文科也是最劃算的,‘十年磨一劍,一劍用百年’。好的學術作品,其效用的發揮短則幾十年,長則千百年,惠人無算。歷史地看,當初那些所謂的巨額投入又算得了什么呢?”

    惠人無算,并非虛言。

    這樣一個數據庫,讓圖書館人有了一個好助手。國家圖書館副館長張志清還記得,過去給古籍編目,每次進入書庫,都要推著一個滿載著工具書的書車,其中不少書都是為了查考古籍作者的生平而準備的。一個“歷代進士登科數據庫”,不僅抵得上好幾部工具書,而且檢索起來更為便捷、高效。

    這樣一個數據庫,讓學術研究有了更為堅實的基礎。在清華大學教授侯旭東看來,對進士群體的系統梳理,對理解隋唐以后的中國史有重要意義,用大數據的方法挖掘這些資料,為未來的學術研究帶來了很多可能性。

    侯旭東笑言,浙江人不僅善于經商,民營企業做得好,在浙江大學執教的浙江人龔延明,通過20多年的探索,又為知識生產提供了一個新的范例。

    如此說來,龔延明團隊24年的不懈努力,既為學界貢獻了豐富的文獻信息,又蹚出了一條學術新路。

    (記者 杜羽)

    (責編:孫爽、程宏毅)


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