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    社會轉型時期的當代俄羅斯史學

    劉爽  2019年06月20日09:59  來源:中國社會科學報

    當代俄羅斯史學在蘇聯解體和國家社會轉型這一歷史大背景下生成了自身的研究特色、形成了獨特的研究思路。在蘇聯解體和“冷戰”結束的歷史背景下,世界地緣政治發生巨變,俄羅斯國家和社會轉型異常艱難,經濟衰退、貧富分化的現實,使俄羅斯各界對“歷史虛無主義”產生的負面影響有了新的認識,開始了對蘇聯乃至整個俄羅斯歷史的整體反思。

    葉利欽執政時期,俄羅斯的民主政治和市場經濟體制初步建立,但經濟低迷和社會混亂的局面并未得到多大改善。與此同時,歷史學也從對祖國歷史的全盤否定開始了向理性思考的轉折。原有的學術禁區和理論束縛被打破,各種歷史觀紛紛亮相,在史學觀念多元化的同時,俄國傳統史學再次受到重視。歷史檔案的解密和開放,使許多歷史懸疑問題研究得到突破。通過引進當代西方史學理論,將現代科技手段應用于史學研究實踐,俄羅斯史學在理論與方法上有所進展。在俄羅斯社會的巨變中,大部分史學家對西方國家的和平演變策略,以及后來在俄羅斯周邊出現的一系列“顏色革命”開始有了清醒的認識,對喧囂一時的自由主義思潮表示質疑,并對“復辟史學”和“歷史虛無主義”予以否定。一些學者認為,應堅持歷史唯物主義的基本原則,從總體上更加理性地認識祖國歷史。許多中青年史學家開始從整體上探索俄羅斯特殊的歷史發展道路,推出了一系列史學新作。盡管還有明顯的過渡階段特點,但一定程度上標志著俄羅斯新史學的濫觴。這些成果表明,當代俄羅斯史學已逐步擺脫各種無序與混亂的困擾,以科學和開放的態度評析不同時代的史學成就,力求從中找出俄羅斯歷史發展的內在規律和各種因素的相互作用機制。

    21世紀伊始,普京登上俄羅斯的政治舞臺。他面對錯綜復雜的國內外形勢,提出振興俄羅斯的戰略目標。為喚醒俄國歷史上長期形成的民族傳統與文化精神,激發人們的集體主義和建設強大國家的信心,必須重構俄羅斯的意識形態體系。在這種情況下,深入研究俄羅斯歷史,從歷史中尋找復興祖國的精神力量,具有重要現實意義。強化國家權威,成為普京“俄羅斯新思想”的重要組成部分。普京認為,強國理念的核心是愛國主義,其根本要求是尊重祖國歷史。

    根據這一思想,俄羅斯教育管理部門對教科書的編撰作出具體規定,糾正以往歪曲或貶低祖國歷史的做法。為此,俄羅斯聯邦政府組建了修改歷史教科書工作委員會,由著名歷史學家丘巴里揚院士擔任學術領導。2015年,《祖國歷史》教科書通過審查;2016年,全國中小學基本上使用了新編歷史教科書。新時期俄羅斯歷史教科書的編寫秉承這一宗旨:體現客觀評價歷史、恢復大國地位的基本要求;強調史學觀念與方法論的創新;運用整體史方法分析復雜歷史進程,將蘇聯史作為俄羅斯歷史的一部分;強調愛國主義原則,將十月革命放在長時段去考察,提出俄國大革命的概念;歷史與現實結合以“通古今之變”;在整體史視域下客觀評判影響社會發展的體制及個人因素。同時,歷史教科書也強調,任何對已做出定論歷史的篡改和歪曲,都可能破壞和平發展的國際環境。從近十年出版的多套歷史教材看,新編歷史教科書已成為俄羅斯實現現代化目標的重要理論支撐。2012年,俄羅斯政府還開展了“俄羅斯歷史年”活動,通過在全國掀起了解歷史、學習歷史和研究歷史的熱潮,進一步增強民眾的愛國主義意識。

    近年來,隨著俄羅斯轉型的困難和人們對恢復大國地位的渴望,對斯大林的評價出現明顯變化,主要是理性反思和客觀評價逐漸取代了惡意攻擊和謾罵。一些學者認為,斯大林代表了一個時代,是社會主義蘇聯不斷強大并取得勝利的象征;應從長時段和俄羅斯現代化進程評價斯大林的歷史地位和歷史作為,全盤否定斯大林一定程度上意味著對蘇聯歷史的全盤否定。當然,對斯大林嚴重錯誤的理性分析與批判也逐漸形成一些基本共識。同時也應看到,當代俄羅斯史家在重評斯大林時,往往出現明顯的去政治化傾向,即削弱斯大林運用馬克思主義指導俄國革命的理論探索與社會實踐,否定斯大林領導蘇聯人民進行社會主義建設的基本性質,把蘇聯看成與沙俄等同的帝國,將斯大林與帝俄時代的統治者相提并論。這不僅反映了當代俄羅斯歷史研究中自相矛盾和雙重標準問題,由于抽取了革命內涵的非政治化傾向,某種程度上也反映了通過重評斯大林達到恢復強國目的的訴求。

    在俄羅斯社會轉型的過程中,歷史學的價值和功能逐步受到重視,盡管俄羅斯經濟長期不景氣,但各種歷史類書籍的數量卻幾乎沒有下降。其中,由根納季·波爾久戈夫主編的《近25年俄羅斯的史學研究》收錄近40位俄羅斯學者撰寫的論文、綜述、述評等文章,涉及俄羅斯近現代史研究的全部重要領域,包括影視史學、歷史人類學、檔案的現代化處理,以及對一些重大歷史問題的重新評價等。總體來看,盡管轉型社會的政治經濟因素對史學的影響依然存在,但多數史學家圍繞歷史的經驗與教訓、民族的傳統與精神等方面進行艱辛探索,已將俄羅斯史學從總體上推向一個新的發展時期,并成為影響整個社會團結統一的重要因素。今天的俄羅斯在國家轉型過程中,在強國道路上雖然取得了一些成就,但受到內部體制轉軌困難以及西方制裁等外部形勢復雜變化影響,改革的任務遠未完成。變革的時代呼喚歷史的向導,前進的道路需要歷史經驗的借鑒。這對史學的創新發展提出了更高要求,需要在關注現實、總結經驗、揭示規律的實踐中不斷前行,并由此確立俄羅斯史學發展的新方向。

    俄羅斯與中國互為最大鄰國,俄國十月革命和蘇聯的社會主義實踐對中國的革命和建設產生過巨大影響。中國馬克思主義史學的發展,一定程度上借鑒了蘇聯的理論和經驗,蘇聯解體也給中外史學家留下沉重的課題。當代俄羅斯史學在從迷惘困惑到理性反思的巨大轉變中,總結歷史經驗,探索歷史規律,正在為強國戰略提供理論支撐。對當代俄羅斯史學反思的歷史進行全面系統研究,可以更深入了解俄羅斯學者在現代化進程、蘇聯解體原因、國家發展道路選擇等重大問題研究中的新史料、新方法、新觀點,更好地把握俄羅斯史學的發展現狀和未來趨勢。同時,對當代俄羅斯史學發展變化進行跟蹤研究,也可以從史學的更深層次汲取蘇聯的歷史經驗和教訓,為新時代中國特色社會主義建設提供理論參考和歷史借鑒。

    (作者系國家社科基金項目“當代俄羅斯史學研究”負責人、黑龍江省社會科學院研究員)

    (責編:孫爽、程宏毅)


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