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    智庫研究

    應用型高校智庫建設的四大支點

    張文智 張富國  2019年06月10日08:37  來源:光明日報

    應用型高校以服務區域發展和產業振興為主要目標,承擔著培養應用型技術技能人才、增強學生就業創業能力、強化高校應用技術創新驅動發展能力等重要職責。當前,互聯網、人工智能等新技術正不斷重塑教育形態,知識獲取和傳授的方式正在發生深刻變革。同時,伴隨中國特色社會主義進入新時代,人民群眾對教育的需求更為多樣,對更高質量、更加公平、更具個性的教育需求也更為迫切。在這樣的背景下,應用型高等院校如何抓住機遇、實現內涵式發展,成為急需思考的重要課題。黨的十八大以來,以習近平同志為核心的黨中央高度重視中國特色新型智庫建設。應用型高等院校應以新型智庫建設為重要抓手,有效整合校內外優勢資源,實現研究成果的有效快速轉化,引領高校人才培養與社會需求更好對接,把人才培養厚植在產業發展的土壤里。

    建設新型高校智庫,既是時代賦予我國高等院校的光榮使命,也是廣大高校提高社會服務能力的必要路徑。2014年2月,教育部印發《中國特色新型高校智庫建設推進計劃》,要求高校“創新體制機制,整合優質資源,打造高校智庫品牌,帶動高校社會服務能力的整體提升”。2015年1月,中辦、國辦印發的《關于加強中國特色新型智庫建設的意見》提出,要“充分發揮學校學科和人才密集的優勢,推進新型高校智庫建設,提升高校智力服務能力”。今年2月印發的《中國教育現代化2035》提出,要“提高高等學校哲學社會科學研究水平,加強中國特色新型智庫建設”。當前,應用型高校應抓住智庫建設機遇,在智庫定位的科學性、人才培養的實用性、成果轉化的有效性、行業對接的精準性上下功夫,以智庫建設為支點,釋放自身效能,為區域經濟社會高質量發展提供更為堅實有力的智力支持。

    以明確主攻方向為支點,破解高校智庫建設盲從跟風的難題。當前,新型智庫建設如火如荼,在高校智庫建設的熱潮中,應用型高校建設智庫,急需找準定位:既要對其人才儲備、學科基礎和學術優勢等作出綜合考量,還要敏銳捕捉社會發展趨勢并堅持需求導向,面向學校發展和行業需求,建設高水平智庫。具體來說,在學校建設智庫前,應開展充分的評估,對學校資源現狀及使用情況、學校服務意向、地方及行業發展需求等因素開展充分調研,明確主攻方向,找準智庫建設的發力點。在智庫建設過程中,要緊密結合學校的優勢學科和研究能力,有針對性地進行行業調研和趨勢分析,同時及時反哺學校學科建設與人才培養,以智庫建設更好釋放高校服務行業、區域發展的動能。比如,可面向行業發展趨勢組建行業智庫,形成覆蓋行業、產業發展的戰略與政策研究支撐網絡;可面向區域發展需要,孵化培育一批獨具特色的政策咨詢機構。同時,要動態評估智庫的發展情況及效能與產出,以智庫建設盤活學校現有的人力智力、物力設施、優勢學科等軟硬件資源,讓物盡所用、人盡其才,使科學研究更加深入細致;發揮新型智庫在學校規劃、學生培養、行業發展等方面的戰略研究、政策建言等作用。

    以實用型人才培養為支點,破解教育效果滯后性難題。與研究型高校和職業型高校不同,應用型高校除具有研究型高校的研究和探索功能之外,更承擔著培養實用型人才的重任。《中國教育現代化2035》指出,要“加強創新人才特別是拔尖創新人才的培養,加大應用型、復合型、技術技能型人才培養比重”。應用型高校智庫要堅持為地方經濟社會發展提供智力產品、輸送優質人才的主攻方向,發揮高校人力資源在經濟轉型、社會發展和產業升級方面的重要價值。具體來說,既要遴選一批立場堅定、理論深厚、視野開闊、熟悉情況、掌握政策的專家學者,建立學校咨政研究人才庫;又可聘請具備較高理論素養的黨政、企事業單位領導干部參與高校智庫研究工作,形成政產學研用之間人才交叉流動的良好格局。更為重要的是,智庫在以社會和企業需求為導向進行研究時,能夠及時整合行業企業和社會發展的新理念、新技術、新方法,并將其引入學校應用型人才培養中,助推高校及時調整學科專業結構,及時更新應用型人才培養模式,破解大學教育社會效果滯后性難題,不斷提高應用型、技術技能型和復合型人才培養質量。

    以體制機制為支點,破解高校智力服務能力不高難題。當前,高校智力服務普遍存在建設滯后、供需錯配、能力不高等問題。面向社會需求建設智庫,要深化產教融合、校企合作,努力破除師資聘用、職稱評定、實習實訓、科研管理等方面的體制機制障礙。要通過機制建設,理清“利益相關者”關系,比如引入市場分配機制、智力成果評估機制、創新能力提升機制等,以此建立靈活高效的用人機制、共享共贏的協同機制、實踐檢驗的評價機制和兼顧團隊與個人的激勵機制,提升智庫從業者的工作積極性、自主研究能力、成果轉化能力和持續創新能力。新型高校智庫是聯系智庫從業者研究成果與生產實踐的“中轉站”,要將政府、學校、企業、師生聚合在這一平臺上,暢通智力成果的流通和轉化渠道。可按照國家和當地政府的政策、結合本校實際制定相應政策,建立勞動、知識、資本、技術等生產要素按貢獻參與分配的機制,切實保障高校智力服務的產出。

    以行業需求為支點,加快融入區域經濟社會發展。圍繞地方產業轉型升級、基本公共服務均等化等尚存問題,對接地方創新要素資源,形成校地聯動發展的格局。在應用型高校智庫建設實踐中,要錨定中央和地方經濟社會發展需要,抓住經濟轉型、產業升級的關鍵問題,加快融入區域經濟社會發展,為地方經濟社會發展提供智力支撐。同時,要以地方及行業發展所需要解決的現實問題為突破口,重點推進經濟結構調整與轉型、創新驅動發展和國家創新體系建設、城鄉一體化發展、財稅體制改革、金融創新與安全、糧食與食品安全、區域經濟協調發展等重點領域開展協同研究,推動智庫成果及時有效地轉化為兼具社會效益和經濟效益的產出,助推地方經濟社會發展。

    (作者:張文智、張富國,分別系東北師范大學科技哲學與交叉科學研究中心特約研究員,教授)

    (責編:孫爽、程宏毅)


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