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    英語世界《莊子》“卮言”研究述評

    于雪棠  2019年04月10日13:16  來源:中國社會科學報

    寓言、重言和卮言,是《莊子》獨特的言說方式,歷來歧解紛出,其中,“卮言”尤為學界所重,英語世界亦多有探討。《莊子》的各種英譯本及相關論文中,卮言的譯法只有幾種,大多遵從中國古代有影響的注疏。

    19世紀有三位英國漢學家將《莊子》全譯成英文。巴爾福(Frederic Henry Balfour)是首譯者,曾任職于北京同文館和京師大學堂。他沒有將卮言譯成對應的英文詞語,而是譯解其含義,根據郭象注和唐陸德明《經典釋文》,突出了卮言“因物隨變”的特點。劍橋大學漢學教授翟理思(Herbert Allen Giles)譯為“Goblet words”(高腳杯言辭),卮為酒器,古注如此。這一譯法以其簡潔形象、貼近原義而廣為接受。牛津大學漢學教授理雅格(James Legge)譯作“Cup,or Goblet Words”。對《莊子》中與卮言相關的論說,理雅格主要依據成玄英、王雱及陸樹芝的疏解加以翻譯,在其譯本的序言中一一列出了這些莊學要籍。

    進入20世紀,美國哥倫比亞大學教授華茲生(Burton Waston)的全譯本最受學界推崇。賓西法尼亞大學教授梅維恒(Victor H. Mair)的全譯本偏重《莊子》的文學性,也頗有影響。華茲生沿襲了翟理思的譯法,在《寓言》篇首段的腳注中解釋卮言,強調其無窮變化的特點,源自郭象注。梅維恒將卮言譯為“Impromptu words”(酒席間的即興之言),也是基于中國古注。

    此外,卮為何器,是古今本土學者都曾予以考辨的問題,英語世界的學者也有這方面的研究。加拿大阿爾伯塔大學東亞系副教授傅云博(Daniel Fried)認為,卮是一種用于農業灌溉的尖底瓶,而非玉制禮器,其說詳見論文《永不穩定的言辭:莊子的卮言及用于灌溉的尖底瓶》。

    西方學者有其特定的學術傳統和問題意識,遵從中國古代注疏之外,其研究視角必然會有別于本土學者。

    首先,宗教因素的介入十分明顯。翟理思在翻譯“卮言日出,和以天倪”時,直接把“天倪”譯為“God”。天倪絕非上帝,這一譯法賦予卮言以宗教意味。美國斯坦福大學宗教系教授李耶理(Lee H. Yearley)所撰《道家的表述與說服:徜徉于莊子的語言類型》一文,從宗教倫理學角度對卮言進行了闡釋,給予卮言極高的評價。在他看來,如何用勸說的方式展現一個超越我們通常理解的世界,是宗教倫理學面臨的至關重要的問題,只有卮言才能令人信服地展現那個世界。此外,李耶理在闡釋卮言時,將其與“天倪”和“天鈞”兩個概念相聯系,提出一個新異之說。他認為卮言參與天倪(whetstone of Heaven,天之磨刀石)塑造萬物的過程,天倪又被譯成天鈞(The potter’s wheel of Heaven,天之制陶旋盤)。磨刀石和陶鈞都是通過控制暴力而生產出新的更好的形態,莊子以此為喻,凸顯了他對精神提升的理解,也凸顯了用以表現這一思想的卮言。這種解讀是對《莊子》的過度闡釋,以何種態度對待暴力是西方宗教學的一個話題,并非《莊子》討論的問題,更不是卮言的意義。盡管這種分析明顯有悖《莊子》意旨,卻讓我們看到中國古代經典對于解決西方學術問題的助益。

    其次,西方從古希臘時代開始,就特別注重從論辯角度出發研究如何說服聽眾或讀者。西方修辭傳統上一直被等同于“言說的藝術”(the art of speaking)或者“說服的藝術”(the art of persuation)。在這樣的學術背景下,英美學者在研究卮言時,特別重視論辯。從發生角度考察,強調卮言產生于論辯背景。從論辯過程角度考察,關注運用語詞的技能。從論辯目的角度考察,關注卮言的說服力。英國漢學家葛瑞漢(A. C. Graham)指出:寓言、重言和卮言這三個術語是特殊的詞匯,是由莊子在批評辯論時發展出來的。這一論斷很準確,對研究《莊子》的言說方式及文本形態具有啟示意義。葛瑞漢將卮言譯為“Spillover saying”(流溢的言論),并加以解說:它可以自由地從一個觀點轉換到另一個觀點,如果沒有它,我們無法延長論辯或是生存。換言之,在他看來,卮言是論辯中不可或缺的一種言說方式。然而所謂“無法延長論辯”,《莊子》原文并沒有相應的表述,這是譯者添加的內容。關于卮言的目的及功效,李耶理認為,卮言是一種不同于其他邏輯性辯論的修辭形式,其作用是具有說服力,說服人們去思考甚至接受那些他們本以為是古怪、令人困惑或完全錯誤的思想、行為和角度。筆者認為,卮言雖然是在戰國諸子論辯背景下提出的,但其意并不在說服他人,而是超越論辯,李說未能切中肯綮。相較而言,葛瑞漢的看法更接近卮言的特性,他認為道家并不想用詞語揭示真相或現實,只是提醒我們語言的局限性,并以此來引導我們理解世上變化的角度和生活的真諦。

    再次,西方學術傳統還特別重視口頭與書面語言的分殊,亞里士多德《修辭學》一書就論及這一問題。美國密歇根大學東亞系教授林順夫(Shuen-Fu Lin)在《莊子內篇的語言》一文中提出,卮言是道家唯一的理想言說方式,指的是與心靈的作用方式一致的口述行為。卮言是一種口頭表達方式,而后轉化為書面文字。他還進一步探討了卮言作為書寫結構與《莊子》哲學思想的關系。他認為晉代司馬彪注云“謂支離無首尾言也”,辨識出了“卮”與“支”雙關的意義,這就將《莊子》散文的形式與支離一詞所描述的不正常身體形狀做了類比,這是對內篇及全書其他很多部分書寫風格的重要洞察。莊子是唯一一位嘗試將其觀念以相應的散文形式表達出來的思想家。

    最后,作者、文本和讀者是研究作品的三個視角。中國古代文論以孟子“知人論世”“以意逆志”說為代表,特別重視推原作者之意,重視對作者的研究,相對忽視從讀者角度對文本進行探討。20世紀70年代,西方興起接受美學,突出了讀者在建構作品意義過程中的作用。在對卮言的研究中,也能看到接受美學的影子,具體表現為探討如何閱讀卮言,發掘對讀者而言卮言的意義。曾任教于美國多所大學的吳光明(Kuang-Ming Wu)教授在《卮言 寓言 重言——莊子的哲學方法論》一文中提出,卮言是這樣一些言辭,它要求我們改變、被評價及變形,面對事物時絕對地聰敏與靈活。我們感到閱讀時被奇怪地凈化了,那些言辭的宣導功能使我們思考。它們的晦澀難懂不能歸因于莊子的笨拙,而是因為閱讀方式的錯誤。我們必須放棄創設方式(無方、無為),放松自身,并且讓我們自在自為(懸解、天放)。然后,我們就能看到并理解。它們使得讀者一遍遍地重讀,直到停止思考而只用直覺去感受。

    美國羅文大學哲學與宗教系王又如教授(Youru Wang)在《道家莊子和禪宗的語言策略》一書中,也從讀者角度對卮言有所論析。他說:將卮言與其他普通語言模式區別開來的是,卮言包含莊子關于交流的認識,莊子認為交流是分享及參與,而不是傳播信息或知識。莊子并沒有什么特定的信息要傳達,存在的—精神的喚醒或轉化以及一種新的生活,才是莊子要與讀者分享的。莊子只是想讓讀者質疑他們自身的思考方式,卮言的目的是激發對自身的認知。曾就職于美國深泉學院的學者珍妮?拉普(Jennifer R. Rapp)在《比較詩學:歐坦克庇德斯、莊子與人類想象建構的平衡》一文中也表達了類似觀點。

    對于熟悉《莊子》的本土學者而言,英語世界中的相關研究,哪些比較貼近《莊子》文本之意,哪些明顯偏離甚至與莊生之旨背道而馳不難辨識,辨其正誤固然必不可少,但這并非筆者撰文的目的。如能借由海外漢學界對某一具體問題的討論,進而更多地了解中西學術的差異與交融,更深刻地認識自身,也更好地理解他人,豈不善哉!

    (作者系國家社科基金項目“20世紀《莊子》在英語世界的傳播”負責人、北京師范大學教授)

    (責編:孫爽、閆妍)


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