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    禮樂文化視野下的唐代樂府詩學研究

      2019年01月03日08:25  來源:光明日報

      作為唐人樂府詩創作實踐指導與經驗總結的唐代樂府詩學,既是唐前樂府詩學的總結與發展,又是唐后樂府詩學的重要參照,是中國古代樂府詩學史上繼往開來之集大成。結合唐代禮樂文化建設與樂府詩創作實際,對唐代樂府詩學進行全面梳理與系統研究,并借之探討唐代樂府詩創作的發展軌跡,既是重要的樂府詩學研究課題,又是獨特的樂府詩史描述維度。

      唐代樂府詩學相關文獻的系統梳理

      唐代樂府詩人基本都有自覺的樂府詩學意識,整個社會也有一種濃厚的樂府詩學氛圍,故而唐代樂府詩學研究的原始文獻內容繁復、類型多樣,需要系統梳理。

      上層建筑的禮樂思想與言論。上層建筑的禮樂思想與言論,既是唐代樂府詩學的構成內容,也是研究唐代郊廟、燕射、鼓吹等歌辭與新聲樂府的重要依據。這類文獻主要包括徐堅等《大唐開元禮》、王涇《大唐郊祀錄》、劉貺《太樂令壁記》、杜佑《通典·禮典》《樂典》以及《舊唐書·禮儀志》《新唐書·禮樂志》等典籍。

      樂府詩人的詩學思想與言論。樂府觀念、樂府詩創作方法、樂府詩品評鑒賞等詩學內容,在唐人詩作、詩序、書札及其他應用文體中,都有體現。詩作如杜甫《同元使君舂陵行》、白居易《寄唐生》《讀張籍古樂府》等;詩序如盧照鄰《樂府雜詩序》、白居易《新樂府序》、柳宗元《唐鐃歌鼓吹曲十二篇序》、元稹《樂府古題序》《和李校書新題樂府十二首序》以及元結、皮日休等人系樂府、補樂歌、正樂府序等;書札如元稹《敘詩寄樂天書》、白居易《與元九書》等。另外元稹《唐故工部員外郎杜君墓系銘(并序)》、白居易《策林》中的《議禮樂》《沿革禮樂》《復樂古器古曲》《議文章》《采詩》等應用文體,無不體現了詩人的樂府詩學思想。

      樂學典籍的詩學思想與言論。唐人撰著了大量樂學典籍,主要有吳兢《樂府古題要解》、郗昂(或云王昌齡)《樂府古今題解》、劉餗《樂府古題解》、沈建《樂府廣題》等解題類著作,武后《樂書要錄》、徐景安《歷代樂儀》、劉貺《太樂令壁記》等樂學專著,以及崔令欽《教坊記》、南卓《羯鼓錄》、鄭處誨《明皇雜錄》、段安節《樂府雜錄》等樂類筆記,是了解唐代樂府詩學的重要文獻。

      唐代樂府詩學理論與創作的內在聯系

      禮樂文明觀念與朝廷樂章創作。朝廷樂章是王朝意識形態建設的重要組成部分,宣示政權合法性與維護政權穩定性是其最基本功能,它主要在王朝“制禮作樂”的過程中得以產生。從禮樂文化的視角去看待唐代的朝廷樂章,有許多值得注意之處。如武后時期郊廟歌辭與前后相比有何不同?盛唐雅樂歌辭在體式、風格以及表現手法上有何特點?胡震亨《唐音癸籖·論唐初樂曲散佚》中細述唐代朝會燕射歌辭大量散佚的現象,認為史家難辭其責,其深層原因何在?柳宗元《唐鼓吹鐃歌》十二曲反映怎樣的禮樂文化思想?等等。

      古題樂府詩學與古題樂府創作。初唐四杰及沈宋等人以樂府古題為文學革新工具,在聲律探求中尋體式新變,促進了近體格律詩的成熟。李白在充分了解樂府自身傳統與發展歷史的基礎上,學習、借鑒和變革樂府經典文本,形成自己獨特的“古樂府之學”。韓愈《琴操》組詩吟詠各曲本事,以摹仿古辭闡明道德理想,借詩明道。張籍、王建、李紳、元稹、貫休、齊己等人學習詩騷與漢樂府精神,創作“莫不諷興當時之事”的古題樂府。可以說,古題樂府至唐而趨鼎盛,不僅留下眾多經典,也豐富了樂府詩學理論體系,其詩學觀念與創作手法等均在中國樂府詩學史上具有繼往開來的重要意義。

      新聲樂府詩學與新聲樂府創作。近體律絕是唐代新聲樂府的主要代表,其創作與傳播都與樂人關系密切。王士禎說“唐三百年以絕句擅場,即唐三百年之樂府也”,多少反映了唐詩創作與傳播的基本實情。唐代近體律絕的發展成熟過程及其與宮廷的內在關聯,唐詩入樂方式及其反映的歌辭創作生態,唐代入樂作品之題材、體裁、風格及審美趣味方面的特點,等等,都是新聲樂府詩學與新聲樂府創作研究需要特別關注的內容。唐代新聲樂府代表性人物王維,其歌詩被樂人選取或截取入樂者最多,其原因為何,又反映當時什么樣的審美趣味,也值得專門考察。

      新題樂府詩學與新題樂府創作。新題樂府是特定詩人群體禮樂文化思想、詩學思想與歌詩創作實踐結合的產物,最富詩學意義,可謂是中國古代樂府詩學思想的集大成。杜甫用樂府詩體描寫時事,恢復《詩經》、漢樂府中的寫實精神。張籍、王建等人“莫不諷興當時之事”的古題樂府,也直接對元、白新樂府創作起到開啟或先鋒作用。及至元、白高舉新樂府創作大旗,在不斷的詩文唱和與書信往來中,將唐代新樂府創作推向歷史頂峰。此外,元結、皮日休等人意在恢復《詩經》與古樂府傳統的系樂府、補樂歌與正樂府創作,也極大地豐富了唐代新樂府詩歌體系。

      唐代樂府詩學的歷史影響

      樂府詩能作為兼備諸體的特殊詩體被世人接受,關鍵有三。其一是漢武帝立樂府、作樂歌、定郊祀之禮的文化舉措,延續了先秦《詩經》所具有的禮樂文化精神。其二是班固《漢書·禮樂志》與《藝文志》的“樂府”書寫與建構所塑造的樂府觀念,引發文人對樂府的青睞與追捧,開啟了美化與粉飾樂舞表演的先河。其三是唐代的樂府詩學理論與創作實踐,不僅把樂府詩的源頭上溯到詩騷層面,而且以具體理論與實踐將這種詩體與朝廷教化和文人事功理想聯系起來,使其具備表現事功理想或明道載道的文化內涵與崇高地位,完成了從禮儀到思想的轉變。

      在唐代得到確認的樂府詩體的這些文化內涵,對后世樂府詩歌理論與創作產生了極大影響。如果將《文苑英華》《唐文粹》對樂府的收錄與郭茂倩《樂府詩集》的編撰進行對比,可以發現郭茂倩對古樂府的看法和分類基本源于吳兢《樂府古題要解》,其近代曲辭與新樂府辭兩大部類基本以唐人的樂府創作實踐為依據,《樂府詩集》編撰實際上是對唐人樂府觀念與創作的一個總結。《通志·樂略》《樂書》《文獻通考·樂考》《唐音癸簽·樂通》《文章辨體》《文體明辨》《鈍吟雜錄》等著作中的樂府理論,歷代詩話中的樂府詩批評鑒賞,歷代詩評家的樂府詩學理論與詩歌選本,也都在很大程度上受到唐代樂府詩學的影響。

      就樂府詩創作而言,吳兢《樂府古題要解》的編撰及李白的古題樂府創作實踐,為后世的古題樂府創作提供了理論參考與寫作范式,引發后世文人對漢魏樂府的模擬,楊維楨、李攀龍等人即是如此。但更應注意的是,元稹、白居易等人遠法詩騷的新樂府理論與創作實踐,確立了樂府詩應具有教化功能和體現事功理想的客觀認識,奠定了后世文人樂府詩歌的基本價值取向。唐人新樂府之于元明清而言,亦已是“古”,故而時人的許多所謂擬古樂府,實乃元白所提倡的新樂府,主要受元白新樂府理論與實踐的影響。楊維楨所倡的“力復唐音”與“宗唐復古”,李東陽所倡的“溯流唐代”與“詩必盛唐”,無不如此。

       (作者:向回,系國家社科基金項目“唐代樂府詩學研究”負責人、河北社科院副研究員)

    (責編:孫爽、閆妍)


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