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    晚清科學翻譯的文化研究

    聶馥玲  2018年09月11日11:13  來源:中國社會科學報

    自明末西方科學知識傳入中國始,就遇到第一道門檻,亦即西方話語如何轉譯為漢語。而系統化解決該問題則是在晚清,由傳教士與中國學者共同跨越這一障礙。當時的中國學者不懂西方語言,多數傳教士也不能用中國語言準確表達西方自然科學的思想內容,更重要的是西方科學對于中國語言是全新的知識領域,無對應的表達方式。因此,對于傳統中國語言中沒有的東西如何表達,表達過程中是否會出現問題,成為一個既重要又有趣的問題。

    帶著這些問題,西方科學知識的翻譯進入研究視野。從中國士大夫理解西方科學的視角,即翻譯西方科學著作時對內容的選擇與重構的角度,對晚清科學翻譯與傳播中的科學文化進行分析。從翻譯學的角度講,翻譯即是一種創造,而晚清采用傳教士口述、中國學者筆譯的方式,造成了譯著與底本差異的可能性。

    研究的首要問題是確定并查找底本。我們選擇首批傳入中國的幾部有代表性的譯著,如《重學》《談天》《化學鑒原》《地學淺釋》《代數學》《代數術》等作為研究對象,分別進行個案研究。這些底本多是19世紀或者更早的英文著作,大多是當時在西方流行的大學教科書,且在西方多次再版并有內容更新,反映了當時西方科學發展的最新成果,是當時西方的上成之作。

    其次,是將譯著與底本進行對比研究。除了科學術語翻譯的研究,還要從譯著與底本體例、內容、知識結構、知識體系、科學方法等方面的差異,探討翻譯過程中中國學者對西方科學文化的理解。我們研究發現,譯著對原著的內容、知識體系都進行了不同程度的選擇與重構,盡管不同譯著涉及不同譯者,體現的特點不完全相同,但總體上體現出某種規律性。在具體知識的翻譯中,譯者也注重新知識的更新與補充,使譯著基本反映西方科學發展的新成果。

    晚清科學翻譯表現出很強的本土化特征:考慮到中國讀者的知識背景及表達習慣,譯著中增加了某些傳統知識,沿用中國傳統文字、記數方法,科學術語也盡可能使用中國已有的表達,或借用已有的詞匯并賦予新的含義,表現出很強的中國傳統文化特色。

    在譯著整體結構與體例的翻譯中,大多刪減了底本中的前言、導論和附錄,特別是底本的導論內容多為該著作的寫作思想、知識體系、學科概念的界定、方法的闡述等,在底本中是綱領性內容,遺憾的是這部分內容多數沒在譯著中體現。相應地,正文中科學概念、原理和方法等內容也有不同程度的刪減。

    晚清科學譯著另一個重要特征,即譯著與底本的文體、語言風格有很大差異,并表現出某種文化特征:譯著弱化了底本的人文性與趣味性,刪減了原著中大量的與歷史文化有關的內容,在語言表達和行文方式上也有很大差異:多數底本語言妙趣橫生,行文似科學探險,頗有文采。譯文則按照中國科技著作的學術傳統編寫,行文風格講究緊湊,遣詞造句不求華麗,言簡意賅,論證與敘述關注知識本身,盡量避免行文枝蔓。

    個別譯著甚至對底本的敘述方式、敘述順序進行調整,甚至對西方知識體系進行修改和重構,不同程度地改變了底本的面貌,特別是對知識體系的調整,以西方科學為參照時,我們看到某種程度上喪失了西方知識體系的完整性及其部分內在的邏輯關系,但從中國傳統知識背景考察,又有某種合理性。

    上述研究結果表明,晚清漢譯科學著作與其底本相比,從形式到內容都發生了重大變化。晚清科學翻譯并不是一種純粹的文字轉換活動,而是一個十分復雜的過程,涉及因素多、范圍廣,既包括知識和語言,又與文化相關聯。早期的科學翻譯還涉及當時譯者及讀者的知識背景、知識結構以及對西方科學的理解程度,涉及兩種科學傳統的碰撞與交流、選擇與適應。更值得注意的是,由于晚清中西方科學發展水平的差異,譯者翻譯時需要面對一種全新的知識體系,還需要在傳統知識框架下理解這種新的知識體系,所有這些都會在譯著中有所體現。因此,有人認為科學翻譯僅僅是科學信息的傳遞,不同文化的科學家會用同樣的方式思考和行動,但在中西科學傳統迥異的100多年以前,情況絕非如此。

    正因如此,晚清科學翻譯的研究有著重要的意義,也促使我們進一步思考:對晚清西方科學移植的普遍觀點認為,在“中學為體,西學為用”的意識形態觀照之下,晚清科學移植的大多問題歸于中國人對科學的追求是出于功利、實用,而不是對科學本身有真正興趣。但從鴉片戰爭之后早期科學譯著的研究來看,其中似乎具有更為復雜的因素。從譯著中可以看到譯者精益求精、堅持探索的態度和行動,可以看到譯者用完全不同于西方的語言表達西方科學的努力與追求,同時還可以看到譯者對西方科學文化把握的欠缺與不足。

    (作者系國家社科基金西部項目“晚清科學文化研究”負責人、內蒙古師范大學副教授) 

    (責編:孫爽、閆妍)


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