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    新世紀外國兒童文學漢譯的影響與啟示

    李琴  2018年08月14日16:45  來源:中國社會科學報

    新世紀以來,外國兒童文學漢譯對我國兒童文學創作實踐的影響,主要體現于幻想型兒童文學的繁榮和我國兒童文學創作的類型化趨向。究其影響源,非英國魔幻文學大師J.K.羅琳的“哈利?波特”系列、R.R.托爾金的“魔戒”系列莫屬。這兩大小說系列分別構建了神奇莫測的魔法世界和宏偉壯觀的神話世界,令小讀者們沉迷其中。

    兒童幻想小說在中國刮起的“魔幻風”,令我國本土作家也積極創作幻想型兒童文學作品以饗讀者,代表性作品有湯萍的《魔法小女妖童話系列》《魔界系列》,殷健靈的四卷本《風中之櫻》,薛濤的《夸父與小菊仙》《盤古與透明女孩》等。這些作品呈現系列化、多卷本的特點,富有幻想色彩,有的還融入了我國傳統神話元素。如同“哈利?波特”一樣,系列化、幻想型成為新世紀我國兒童文學創作的重要趨勢,我國兒童文學終于插上幻想的翅膀,“飛”了起來。

    目前,新世紀我國兒童文學的發展,主要存在引進多、本土創作少,跟風多、原創少,城市多、農村少、題材分布不均勻,生產多、推廣少等問題。此外,還有兒童小說人物塑造的臉譜化、同質化現象。這些問題的源頭,恐怕還得歸結為原創力不足,一個重要表現,就是在一些領域不同程度地存在想象力缺乏。我國特殊的歷史文化語境使得本土原創兒童文學難以擺脫存在的某些教育和訓誡的色彩,“太多的教化色彩,讓我國大多數兒童書疏遠了其閱讀主體——兒童,從而為西方那些充滿奇異幻想、符合兒童天性的兒童書的進入大開了方便之門”。這也解釋了為什么“哈利?波特”系列會在中國掀起這么大跟風模仿的浪潮。因此,新世紀外國兒童文學漢譯帶給我國本土兒童文學創作的啟示之一,就是要進一步放飛想象力,將中國傳統的神話傳奇元素融入奇妙瑰麗的想象之中,為孩子們構建一個興趣盎然的幻想天地。

    新世紀外國兒童文學漢譯帶給我國本土兒童文學創作的第二大啟示,就是如何將兒童文學的類型化與文學性完美結合起來。一般來說,文學作品走向類型化的時候,往往會部分地犧牲文學性,而文學性強的作品,又較難類型化。兒童文學亦然。新世紀以來,我國兒童文學創作日漸向類型化靠攏,可讀性加強了,但某些領域的藝術性卻降低了,在類型化的進程中甚至出現良莠不齊、泥沙俱下的現象。

    相比而言,“哈利?波特”系列卻將兒童文學的類型化和文學性完美結合起來,成為老少皆宜的作品。我國目前的類型化兒童文學總體顯得較為幼稚,文學性不足,與成人文學的分界十分明晰,但是“哈利?波特”系列卻以它深厚的文學性、豐富的知識性、懸念迭生的情節結構、生動形象的語言修辭等,超越了傳統兒童文學的邊界,模糊了兒童文學與成人文學的界線。以色列特拉維夫大學的佐哈兒?沙維特教授指出,“羅琳通過提供一個次要的故事模式就打發了年幼的讀者,這個次要的故事模式就是哈利?波特與朋友們為戰勝邪惡而經歷的冒險”。這種歷險故事在成人文學中俯拾皆是,但是將它老練地用于兒童文學創作中,并且加入成人文學中的哥特式小說元素和神話傳奇故事,構建出一種新的魔幻小說模式,并非每個兒童文學作家都能做到,但是羅琳做到了,因此她成功了。

    新世紀以來,我國兒童文學的類型化趨向催生了一大批同質化的兒童文學作品,如何從中脫穎而出,成為讓新一代兒童文學作家絞盡腦汁的事,或許“真要比高下,到頭來,還是得到文學性上去找出路,還是得到純文學中去吸取營養”。“哈利?波特”的成功告訴我們,新世紀的中國兒童文學創作應該將類型化與文學性更好地結合起來,如此才能真正嘗試與國際接軌,成為世界兒童文學大家庭中的一員。

    由上可見,外國兒童文學漢譯對我國本土兒童文學創作的影響和啟示是積極而深遠的。“哈利?波特”系列小說的成功告訴我們,中國兒童文學創作需要進一步豐富題材與想象力,促進類型化與文學性相結合,才能真正做到寓教于樂,起到怡情、生趣、教育、激發想象力等多重效用。

    (作者系國家社科基金青年項目“新世紀外國通俗文學漢譯研究”負責人、西安外國語大學教授)

    (責編:孫爽)


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