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    唯物史觀視野下道德意志本質探尋

    沈永福  2018年08月01日09:42  來源:中國社會科學報

    道德意志問題,是一個古老又常新的道德哲學問題,也是一個現實世界人的發展和社會發展積極建構的實踐難題。根據唯物史觀,要從社會歷史角度,在社會物質生產關系中揭示道德意志的社會歷史本質;要從主體的道德需要及對需要的把握角度,在能動性和社會制約性關系中揭示道德意志的能動性本質;要從社會實踐角度,在實然與應然、規范與導向的關系中揭示道德意志實踐精神的本質。

    道德意志的社會性本質

    唯物史觀認為,作為人類意識重要組成部分的道德意志,既不是先驗的、神賜的、永恒不變的自在之物,也不是理性的、精神的、意識的派生物,而是社會物質生產關系的產物,是人們的生產實踐尤其是道德實踐的產物,是人的自然形成、社會形成、心理形成綜合而成的產物。

    人的道德意志就是與人的需要相關的選擇和調控能力,是在目的性道德需要支配下的選擇、調控能力。從道德意志的人類發生學來說,人的道德意志不僅是自然界長期發展的產物,而且是社會歷史的產物,是人的生產需要、社會需要和自身需要的產物。社會實踐特別是生產勞動產生了道德需要,勞動為人類意識、意志的產生和發展提供了客觀需要和可能,在人們勞動和交往中形成的抽象思維、自我意識特別是語言,促進了意志的發展。

    道德意志是人類思維能力發展到一定程度后,對道德生活內在需要的凝聚、強化和調節,是對外界關系的反映,是人的社會化關系的產物。自然界的客觀存在、社會物質生活條件是道德意志產生的前提條件和客觀性制約因素。人類對現實的或理想化的道德追求、探索、愿望和目的,通過社會實踐對象化過程,在突破了主客體困境和條件的限制、約束中逐漸形成道德與道德意志。

    從個體的道德意志形成過程來看,不僅客觀的社會物質條件是道德意志形成的基礎和前提,是個人歷史的產物,而且還需要主體的生理、心理條件。意志活動是大腦皮層支配下的一系列隨意動作組成的活動,而隨意動作是由大腦皮層運動區和自覺區調節控制的。人的意志不僅受大腦皮層運動區和自覺區的調節和控制,而且受整個大腦皮層的調節和控制。小腦和網狀結構也對人們的意志行為起著重要作用。道德意志的形成還依賴一定的心理機制,以一定的道德認知為前提,為一定的道德情感所驅動,以一定的道德行為實現為依歸。道德意志一旦形成,就會表現出自覺性、選擇性、邏輯性特點,展現出自主、自決、自控、自制的品質。

    道德意志的能動性本質

    作為人的主體意識能力的體現,道德意志對人的道德行為和社會實踐生活具有重要作用,認識不到這種主觀能動作用,就會陷入意志論中宿命論、命定論、反意志論、非道德主義的窠臼;如果夸大這種能動性,則有可能滑向唯意志論、意志決定論、意志萬能論。

    道德意志的能動性表現在于強烈的目的性。在道德活動中,道德意志把人們的需要、欲望、動機、愿望、情感等內容綜合為“目的”,并指向一定的客觀現實生活。當然人的道德意志并非僅限于這種體認,它還進一步將這種目的前進一步,甚至幾步,使之向行動轉化,去實現這種目的。道德意志正是通過善惡的選擇,手段、方式方法的應用,來發動、調節和控制人的欲望、動機、情感、行動等,從而實現自己的目的性指向。道德意志的能動性尤其體現在對困難的克服和障礙的消除方面。

    道德意志可以在實踐中通過確立自己的方向,進而選擇主體需要的情感、愿望,并整合、駕馭、控制不同品質和強度的情感,構成強勁的內驅力,還對妨礙自己目的運行的情感進行排斥、剔除,從而實踐“觀念的存在著”的模型藍圖。道德意志在道德生活中的作用主要通過確立道德目的、制定意志活動方案、調節和控制情感欲望、檢驗反思評判活動結果等環節完成自我使命,實現主體的意志自由。

    道德意志能動性還有賴于一定的物質條件和技術手段,缺乏一定的物質條件和物質手段,道德意志往往淪為“盲目的沖動”,正如俗語所說,“巧婦難為無米之炊”“英雄無用武之地”。道德意志正是由于對這種受限性的客觀認識,具有“理想的意圖”或“理想的力量”,而對人們產生巨大的激情和廣泛的作用,引導人們克服困難,改變實然的現實世界,達到應然的“理想世界”。從這個意義上講,人的道德意志本質上是自由與必然相統一的,是對限定、束縛的突破、超越,是受限與能動、實然和應然、理想和現實、絕對與相對、客觀和主觀、主體與客體、有限與無限的辯證統一。

    道德意志實踐精神的本質

    正如馬克思所言,“一切動物的一切有計劃的行動,都不能在地球上打下自己的意志的印記。這一點只有人才能做到。”道德意志作為實踐精神,主要指主體在道德目的指引下,通過意志活動調控自身,進而通過調控人們的對象性活動來實現既定價值目標,并使自身得到外化、對象化。

    作為道德之“實踐精神”來把握世界,道德意志表現出兩點特殊性。一個是從“實然”與“應然”的關系上來把握世界;另一個是從“規范性”與“導向性”的關系上來把握世界。從實然與應然的關系著眼,一方面,展現在主體面前的道德現實關系,表現實有的利益關系,是一種現實或現狀;另一方面,道德意志追求的是理想的道德關系,表現的可能是一定的未來利益關系,表現的是尚不存在的東西、未有的東西,即表現的是時間上的世界的理想或未來,是空間上的人類在具備一定條件的情況下理應達到的理想世界的程度及規模等。

    因此,道德意志正如渡河上的舟船,指引、幫助人們從“實然”之此岸到達“應然”之彼岸,途中可能還要應對急流漩渦甚至驚濤駭浪。也恰是道德意志的應然性、理想性的指向,使人類增強了走向理想未來的信心,并充分展示出人類能夠按照自己意志構建理想世界的主體性。從規范性與導向性的關系著眼,一方面,道德意志通過一定的道德原則與規范,對自我行為的約束與控制,即把自我的行為規范在一定界度內,履行道德義務和責任,以此來維持一定的正常道德秩序。另一方面,道德意志又具有“導向性”作用,通過一定的價值導向,把自我引向德性一方,同時這種“導向性”還具有社會示范效應,對他人、社會起著積極的帶動作用。道德意志作為主體實踐精神的集中表現,又有著超越于現實的創造能力,它能根據主體現實的需要、實踐的需要不斷超越和突破自我限制,展示人的價值與尊嚴。

    (作者系國家社科基金項目“唯物史觀視野下的道德意志研究”負責人、首都師范大學副教授)

    (責編:孫爽)


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