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    敦煌壁畫中的指甲

    陳紅玉  2017年12月22日14:58  來源:光明日報

    張大千敦煌歷代手譜

    西夏第409窟東壁南側西夏王供養像

    關于敦煌壁畫的研究已有很多,這里我們來談談大家較少關注的一點,即敦煌壁畫人物的指甲。

    從表面上看,“指甲”似乎是微不足道的,“指甲”是藝術作品中人物造型的微小部分,在敦煌藝術海洋中也只是渺小的一粟。不過,“上帝在于細節”,這正是藝術史學家貢布里希在他的《藝術的故事》中多次強調的。殊不知,藝術對現實和故事敘述能力的精致之處,就在于類似細節中。敦煌壁畫對人物指甲的細微刻畫,就源于藝術的造型能力和歷史性表達。

    在敦煌壁畫中,我們首先看到大量對于“手”的刻畫與描繪,通常我們最熟悉的莫過于“釋迦五印”,即說法印、無畏印、降魔印、禪定印、予愿印,佛像非常講究手部細節的描刻和塑造,“手”的姿勢代表佛像的不同身份,表達的含義極為豐富,尤其是密教手印多達幾百種。隨著這些手姿的千變萬化,指甲的造型和色彩自然也豐富多彩,指甲因而也具有了表達文化意蘊的功能,我們常說“佛面無語,言之在手”,應該就是這個意思吧。

    更重要的是,敦煌壁畫藝術中的“指甲”不僅刻畫了惟妙惟肖的人物造型,還具有一定的斷代歷史的文化功能。在這方面,藝術家張大千有著重要貢獻,他是提出通過“指甲”進行藝術斷代的先驅者。在壁畫藝術作品中,關于手和指甲的藝術表現很多,但就指甲的刻畫來說,是從西魏之后才開始,早期壁畫中還沒有發現刻畫指甲的例子。在西漢到東漢早期的壁畫中,人物手指不見指甲,甚至連手的表達都不很全面,直到西魏,才將指甲納入畫面。唐代以后壁畫中指甲的造型與圖式更加準確、清晰,而且造型中增加了指甲的裝飾線與色彩。

    1940年,張大千赴敦煌考察,耗時三年,臨摹了大量石窟壁畫,并將之進行宣傳介紹,使敦煌藝術寶庫從此為國人和世界矚目;張大千不僅考察莫高窟的壁畫佛像,還率先對莫高窟進行了編號,為保存文化遺產作出了重要貢獻。在敦煌臨摹時期,敦煌藝術對張大千的藝術風格形成起到了至關重要的作用。1960年7月,張大千應臺北故宮博物院副院長李霖燦之求,繪敦煌歷代佛手,并發表了一篇關于敦煌的佛菩薩手印的文章。他認為,北魏、隋唐、宋元西夏各有不同,其中提到關于指甲的斷代標準。盛唐時指甲退入指端,而五代時指甲根部出現小短線作為裝飾。后來,李霖燦先生根據這一標準,將美國大都會藝術博物館藏的“龍門佛手”定為盛唐時期作品。

    不同時代的指甲細節刻畫不盡相同。張大千通過長時間的考察,翻閱大量考古壁畫資料,檢視每一幅壁畫中人物形象的手部及五官刻畫。敦煌莫高窟第3窟(元代)北壁《千手眼觀音》有月牙紋指甲,第14窟(晚唐)南壁西側《觀音菩薩》中觀音雙手指甲根部有小短線,第285窟(西魏)西壁正龕南側《諸天》人物指甲退入指端。第158窟南壁《涅槃變》中指甲根部首次出現裝飾小短線。從中還可以看出,染指甲的不僅有少數民族人物,也有漢族人士,這說明,在當時指甲染色已經成為流行的審美風尚。

    人類對指甲的裝飾早就有之,并且逐漸發展出了成熟的染色技術和設計樣式。公元前3000年,中國就出現了由蜂蠟、蛋白和明膠制作的指甲油。大約在唐代以前,我國婦女已出現染甲習俗,至唐代形成了染甲的風尚。古代的婦女,在七夕這樣的節日總要聚集在一起,用自制染料將指甲染紅。在喜慶日子里,一些少數民族也有染指甲的習俗。

    在古代文獻中能找到許多關于女子染甲的記載。但在敦煌壁畫中,可以看到,指甲染色似乎也是男子的愛好和習俗。如初唐第335窟北壁《維摩詁經變》中,維摩詰五個指甲都涂有黑色,露在袍外的腳指甲也涂有黑色,位于維摩詰下方的少數民族王子,赤腳上涂有黑色的腳指甲也清晰可見。文殊菩薩座下方帝王前的大臣雙手指甲涂有黑色,帝王左側二大臣中的一人左手露出的手指甲也涂有黑色,帝王身后大臣露出的拇指和食指指甲均涂有黑色。又如初唐第220窟《維摩詰經變》下方的少數民族王子的手指甲涂有咖啡色,再如西夏第409窟東壁南側繪有一幅西夏王的供養像,回鶻王左手持香爐的大拇指指甲涂黑色,右手指甲全涂黑色。一旁站有一端盤人右手四指甲均涂黑色,身后持傘、扇等物的各侍從手指甲也均涂黑色。

    另外,敦煌壁畫藝術中指甲造型的美學風格也因性別而異,如描繪女性的手部指甲造型,線條一般比較優雅流暢,給人優美、婀娜多姿、柔和的感覺;描繪力士、金剛的手部指甲,可能是為了強化其力量的原因,其指甲形狀也多以方為主,所用線條一般比較頓挫粗壯,給人強勁有力的感覺。這些指甲的造型,不僅與樂器、服飾、背景等形成美學形式上的呼應,還與指甲主人的身份形成相應關系,并與禮佛、贊美等佛典的文化意義相互關聯。久而久之,指甲的造型與圖式也逐漸被賦予了宗教內容意指或者特定文化意義。

    (作者:陳紅玉 單位:北京市社會科學院)

    (責編:王瑤)


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