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    甲骨文成功入選《世界記憶名錄》 走近最古老的成熟文字

    湯詩瑤  2017年12月04日09:30  來源:人民網-文化頻道

    教育部官網截圖

    日前,聯合國教科文組織網站發布消息,我國申報的甲骨文順利通過聯合國教科文組織世界記憶工程國際咨詢委員會的評審,成功入選《世界記憶名錄》。

    《世界記憶名錄》是聯合國教科文組織的旗艦項目,創建于1997年,目的是對世界范圍內正在逐漸老化、損毀、消失的文獻記錄進行搶救,并加強保護和利用,提高全世界對文獻遺產及其重要性的認識。該項目每兩年評審一次,我國上一次申報的《南京大屠殺檔案》于2015年入選。截止到2015年,中國已有十份文獻遺產入選《世界記憶名錄》。

    甲骨文是我國發現最早的文獻紀錄,出土于河南安陽殷墟遺址,是距今三千多年的商代后期用于占卜祈禱的文字。由于有了從甲骨文一脈相承發展到今天的漢字,才使中華文明發展至今沒有中斷,這為研究中國源遠流長的燦爛文明史和早期國家與社會形態提供了獨特而真實的第一手資料。甲骨文既是中華民族珍貴的文化遺產,也是人類共同的精神財富。甲骨文成功入選《世界記憶名錄》,標志著世界對甲骨文的重要文化價值及其歷史意義的高度認可,對于國際社會了解和認識甲骨文及博大精深的中華優秀傳統文化具有重要推動作用;對于增強中華民族自豪感,提升文化自信具有重要促進作用。

    走近甲骨文:目前發現的最古老的成熟文字

    甲骨文的發現很巧合。1899年,金石學家王懿榮在買回的中藥龍骨上發現類似文字的刻畫,就將藥鋪剩下的12片龍骨全部買來——幸虧他是金石學家——考證出這就是商代文字,由此被后人稱為“甲骨文之父”。

    王懿榮

    王氏于抵抗八國聯軍進京中殉國,其收藏的千余片甲骨被他的好友,也就是寫《老殘游記》的劉鶚收購并拓印出版了《鐵云藏龜》,這是史上第一部甲骨文專著。

    從1928年中研院史語所正式發掘殷墟(位于河南省安陽市)起,到1937年,考古人員發掘殷墟15次,出土甲骨近2千5百片。解放后,中科院考古所亦有屢次重大發現。

    甲骨文的出土解決了商朝只有文字記載,而無實物證明的尷尬,并訂正了一些細節。

    與常說的“五千年歷史”一樣,我們通常認為甲骨文是最早文字的觀點并不準確,應該說甲骨文是目前發現的最古老的成熟文字。甲骨文(包括一同出土的其他大量文物,比如玉器、陶器和以司母戊鼎為代表的青銅器等等)不僅坐實了商朝的存在,而且為我們研究商朝歷史帶來極大便利,因為甲骨文全面記錄了商朝各個社會領域。

    簡略地講,甲骨文就是商王占卜記錄。彼時的占卜并非是現在我們認為的迷信。世界上任何民族在啟蒙時期,都存在著祭祀天地,與神溝通的儀式。商王除了問鬼神崇拜祭祀外,天氣、年景、田獵、征伐、交通、貢納、土木等事宜無所不占,甚至問到了生孩子的日子與吉兇。例如有一條卜辭記錄商王武丁為其妻婦好(婦好是我國歷史上第一位女政治家和軍事家)占得的結果,推算臨盆時間竟已精確到三天之內,可謂是世界上第一例預產期的科學記載。

    ——本段內容摘自《甲骨文是什么》/任會斌 著/陜西人民出版社

    已發現“甲骨文”多少字?

    文字學專家、魯東大學文學院教授呂永進日前接受人民網采訪時談到:一般認為,到目前為止,已發現的甲骨文不重復的單字約四千五至五千字(因未全識讀,故無確切數),而已公認解讀的約一千字左右。

    釋讀“甲骨文”的方法及現狀

    呂永進介紹說,在十九世紀末發現甲骨文后,經羅振玉、王國維、郭沫若等幾代學人共同努力,據《說文解字》小篆為橋梁,比照金文和戰國文字,參以古文獻,考證了現已識甲骨文的主體部分。后來漫長的時間內,沒有前期那樣集中大量的成果。建國后,以于省吾先生考釋為最,無爭議者也僅幾十個。

    研究甲骨文面臨的“瓶頸問題”有哪些?

    除了前人的研究成果,如今還余下約3000個甲骨文單字待破譯。

    呂永進認為,目前釋讀的“瓶頸”有如下幾方面:一是未識者多為人名、地名等專有名詞,因無文獻參證,不便確認;二是方法上無大的突破,舊法釋難字不足以有大作為;三是材料問題,大多研究者無法得到第一手資料,使研究頗受局限。

    據北京青年報報道,天津南開大學歷史學院的朱彥民教授認為,老一代的甲骨文學者如王國維等都具備非常高的國學素質,他們研究甲骨文的時候正處于甲骨文研究的開始階段,可以破解很多常見字、容易字,“到今天仍然沒有破譯的甲骨文,基本上都是硬骨頭了,因此哪怕只是破譯一個字也是一場‘攻堅戰’。”他舉例談到,很多甲骨文時代使用的器物,如今都已經消失了,因此由這些器物象形而來的文字,我們今天很難辨認出來。“比如殷商時期的灶具,今天的人見到實物可能也很難認出來,變成文字就更困難了。”

    猜猜這些是什么字?

    想要更深入地了解入選《世界記憶名錄》的甲骨文,不妨先來猜猜下面這幾個甲骨文究竟是什么字?

    答案揭曉

    ↓↓↓↓↓

    (答案:元旦好。以上解釋參考韓建周等編著《甲骨文釋義》。)

    做完題,是不是感覺破譯“甲骨文”有些難度呢?如果你還是對甲骨文感興趣想要認識和了解不妨從《漢字演變五百例》這本書入手,這是一本普及性的漢字知識讀物。內容是通過列舉漢字幾種主要字體中的一些字例,并對這些字例的字源作圖解和淺釋,力求簡明形象地體現漢字發展演變的歷史過程。

    部分書摘展示

    ↓↓↓↓↓

    (責編:王瑤)


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