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    丁苑 謝瑞波:道德認同在道德教育中有特殊作用

      2014年09月24日18:06  來源:中國社會科學報

    中國古語有云“三歲看大,七歲看老”,意思是說透過一個三歲兒童的行為舉止便可以感受到這孩子將來會是一個怎樣的人,即孩子養成的品格將沿襲一生。這種古老的觀念,也讓人們堅定地認為,好人永遠善良美好,壞人始終十惡不赦。然而,近年來發生的特殊道德事件引發熱議。甘肅蘭州和河南鄭州分別發生了 “小偷”勇救落水女童和“小偷”勇救發病老人事件。這類道德現象的發生與傳統的“行為一致性”觀念相矛盾,引發我們對不道德行為發生后內在心理機制的思考。

    不道德行為之后是補償行為,還是一致性行為

    對于不道德行為之后會引發當事人怎樣的后續行為,研究者們說法不一,研究結果也出現分歧。新西蘭坎特伯雷大學馬頓斯教授的一系列實證研究表明,如果一個人做了不道德行為,接下來將會做出更多的不道德行為,即“一錯再錯”現象。這一研究結果也反映了古語 “江山易改,本性難移”、“貓改不了偷腥”等思想,馬爾德和阿奎諾將其稱為 “行為一致性”。然而,越來越多的研究發現,消極特質或不道德行為的啟動,會激發人們隨后做出道德行為來彌補自己所犯的錯誤,以消除內心的不道德感,這種現象被稱為“道德補償”。哈佛大學基諾教授研究發現,在實驗初期欺騙他人次數較多的被試,后期傾向于做出更多的道德行為。荷蘭心理學家喬丹研究發現,回憶了曾經做過的不道德行為后,當事人會做出更多的道德行為。美國心理學者泰洛克等人研究發現了類似結果,即在實驗初期的道德決策情境中,選擇付費給窮人以獲取他們身體器官的被試,在之后設置的道德情境中更愿意捐獻器官或者做一名志愿者。對于前文敘述的兩種截然相反的研究結果,未來需要探明其中的微觀心理機制,來進一步解釋不道德行為是如何引發當事人的補償行為和不道德行為兩種不同現象的。

    道德認同影響不道德行為之后的行為

    道德認同是一種相對穩定的人格特質,通常也是道德感的指標。馬爾德和阿奎諾的最新研究表明,道德認同是上述分歧的關鍵因素,即道德認同高的個體,在做過不道德行為之后更傾向于做出補償行為,而道德認同低的個體,在做過不道德行為之后,會做出后續不道德行為。對于道德補償的解釋機制,心理學家認為,不道德行為會導致個體的道德自我概念受到威脅,當事人會傾向于通過道德行為或者道德潔凈行為來修復道德自我概念。道德自我概念是指個體在人際互動過程中形成的對自身品行的認識,包括自我道德評價、自我道德形象、自尊心、自信心、理想自我和自我道德調控能力等方面。然而,根據馬爾德和阿奎諾的研究結果,可能的解釋機制(如圖所示)是,對于道德認同高的個體,不道德行為容易與其道德自我概念產生沖突,威脅到個體的道德自我概念,從而產生道德補償行為以修復原有的道德自我概念;對于道德認同低的個體,不道德行為不容易與其道德自我概念產生沖突,不會威脅到個體的道德自我概念,從而使得個體往后會繼續做出不道德行為。由此可見,在道德教育中要重視道德認同的特殊作用。

    在管教犯錯誤的人方面,非洲的巴貝姆巴部族所使用的方法便蘊含著利用道德認同來促進道德補償行為的思想。當部落有人犯下錯誤,族長會讓犯錯者站到全族人中間,讓德高望重的人及部落成員對其進行真誠的贊美,贊揚他曾經為部族作過的貢獻,表揚他所具有的優良品質,并對他的犯錯表示深切的惋惜。如此一來,犯錯者會從心底發出誠懇的懺悔,改過自新。因為他知道,在族人心中,他是一個優秀、善良的人。

    對德育實踐的啟示性意義

    不道德行為之后的微觀心理機制和“巴貝姆巴”式教育對我國德育實踐具有重要的啟示性意義。首先,在弘揚社會主義道德觀的大時代背景下,應該重視道德認同對道德行為的核心作用。學校等企事業單位在開展道德建設過程中可以通過組織“志愿者服務”、“感恩教育”等活動使公民在實踐中感受關愛、領悟崇高、體驗誠信、感恩他人,積極引導人們將已有的道德體驗加以概括總結,并將其融入到其人格特質中,形成穩定的道德認同。其次,對于道德認同較高的人,不能因為其偶然的錯誤就對當事人失望,要給予補償和改過自新的機會,以維護其原有的高道德認同。對于道德認同較低的人,可以將其所犯錯誤作為一種促進情感發展的教育資源來進行道德教育,提高其道德認同水平,從而促進其道德行為。對于偶然犯錯的高道德認同者,在學校教育中,不必過度夸大事件,可以給當事人提供補償的機會,從而維護其道德自我概念和自尊心;在企事業管理中,不宜對其貼標簽,應該在企事業管理的容忍范圍內,給予諒解。對于屢次犯錯的低道德認同者,在學校教育、企事業管理和罪犯改造教育中,可以通過各種活動體驗、情感培訓等方式著力提高當事人的道德認同水平,誘發不道德行為與個體道德自我概念之間的沖突,促使其補償行為發生,達到改過自新的目的。

    (本文得到全國教育科學“十二五”規劃國家青年基金課題(CBA120107)資助)(作者單位:浙江師范大學心理研究所)

    (責編:趙晶)


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